All organisms, vertebrates and invertebrates, must have necessary nutrients to maintain life. In invertebrates, either a transport system or diffusion provides nutrients to the body. For vertebrates, a closed transport is used to transport blood away from the heart. Both of these scenarios are key to an organism 's health.
Some invertebrates do not require a circulatory system. While these organisms do not require a circulatory system, they require certain nutrients to be readily available.…
We discussed breaking bad news to parents in our feedback session where we talked about how important it is for doctors to be able to break bad news, and that it is a vital skill to have. In my opinion, the conversation with the parents will be to say that there is little hope for survival and no hope for survival without serious handicap in this child as I’ve highlighted above, and that the resuscitation should be abandoned.
The process of therapeutic hypothermia involves the baby being cooled…
• Systemic illness due to microbial infection that can lead to acute organ dysfunction or failure and associated with host immune response to infection
• There is a disease continuum with increasing severity if not treated or not responsive to treatment o Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
- Documented or suspected infection with systemic manifestations of infection
- Clinical response to a nonspecific insult of either infectious or…
development of both of these symptoms.
Figure 1: Blood Flow in Normal Conditions and Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (Grace & Angus, 2013).
Figure 1 (above) shows the blood flow in a normal patient (top), versus blood flow of a patient with Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS).
HPS can be defined by liver disease, intrapulmonary vasodilation in both capillaries and precapillaries, as well as a reduction in arterial oxygenation. It is most commonly seen alongside cirrhosis, but can…
A 42-year-old male is admitted to the ICU for septic shock and hypotension. Vital signs include heart rate of 115 beats/min, respiratory rate 22 breaths/min, blood pressure of 82/40 mmHg, and oxygen saturation of 88% on 2L nasal cannula. A vasopressor is needed to address this patient’s hypotension.
Prior to placement of an arterial line at the radial artery, which of the following describes the most appropriate diagnostic test?
A. Instruct the patient to flex the elbow to 90 degrees while the…
giddiness and associated with diaphoresis the same morning. While in the ED, he developed a sudden episode of shortness of breath. Mr. ABC has nil past medical or surgical history and has an allergy to Enalapril.
His parameters taken are as follows:
• Blood pressure: 112 /60 mmHg
• Pulse rate: 42 beats/min
• Temperature: 35.9°C
• Spo2: 97% on room air
• Respiration rate: 17 breaths/min
An echocardiogram (ECG) was ordered stat to view the electrical activities of the heart at different angle by…
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) remains as one to the major causes of neonatal respiratory distress, which may lead to respiratory failure and death in the infant. This syndrome is the defined as “respiratory distress in an infant born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) with characteristic radiological changes and whose symptoms cannot be otherwise explained” (T. E. Wiswell, J. M. Tuggle, and B. S. Turner 1). About 8–20% of all deliveries have been detected with meconium-…
Effect of chronic chest diseases on right ventricle
I. Effects of chronic chest disease on right heart structure and function
In patients with restrictive lung disease, right ventricular hypertrophy was estimated to be present in 50% of them (Figure15) (Shivkumaret al., 1994). Despite these changes in the structure of the right ventricle, myocardial systolic function is generally conserved in pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung disease (Vizza et al., 1998).…
cultures on September 21st showed moderate
growth of gram positive bacilli and gram positive cocci with some gram negative bacilli
and yeast cells. Therefore, throughout her ICU stay, her body was continuing to fight
infection, and so her white blood cell count was often elevated. The two biggest
laboratory indicators of acute and chronic renal failure are elevated urea and creatinine
levels.14 Mrs. E’s urea levels were high 100 percent of the time she was in the ICU.
role in the human circulatory system. The large organ pumps the blood through arteries, veins, and capillaries to distribute oxygen and nutrients to the body. The circulatory system also plays a part in removing our waste products. Humans have double circulation, meaning the blood passes through the heart twice before completing one round; this allows for the blood to be “re-pressurized”. Once the right side of the heart receives blood from the body, it pumps it to the lungs. This is known…