Appraisal theory

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    The most researched theories are the Homeostatic/Medical Approach, the Cognitive Appraisal Approach, the Person-Environment Fit Approach, and the Psychoanalytic Approach. • The Homeostatic/Medical Approach is when external environmental demands upset or alters a person’s natural steady state balance. Canon coined this state homeostasis. Homeostasis is when the body and its function are all at equilibrium. Canon argued that an individual’s body was created with its own natural defenses mechanism to be able to keep it at a homeostasis level. When anything disturbs homeostasis stress is then created. • The Cognitive Appraisal Approach was furthered researched by Richard Lazarus. The theory suggests that emotions are obtained from our evaluations, assessments or appraisals of events. These appraisals lead to different interpretations and reactions from different people. What can be stressful to someone may not be stressful to another. In addition to Cannons view, Lazarus considered stress to be an outcome of a person–environment interaction but he also emphasized the person’s cognitive appraisal in classifying persons or events as stressful or not. In his research, Lazarus specified two major types of appraisal methods: 1) primary appraisal, which seeks to establish the significance or meaning of an event, and 2) secondary appraisal, which assesses the ability of the individual to cope with the consequences of…

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    peer pressure actually means. Social influence is a change in overt behavior caused by real or imagined pressure from others. Then there is peer pressure, which is the influence from members of one’s peer group. With those two being explained it gives a better explanation on what Schachter meant when he said the main factors of these two subjects were the main factors. With obedience people would have the will power to say no but do not, with conformity it shows that people strive to be like one…

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    As according to the appraisal theory, cognitive factors are able to modulate stress responses, this can be seen in the physiological and psychological reactions involved in the experience. Appraisal can also be seen as the evaluation of a situation, including the evaluation of one’s resources and ability to cope with a stressful event. This can also be supported by Speisman et al. (1964) who investigated the extent to which manipulation of cognitive appraisal could influence emotional…

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    Performance appraisal and trust theory In addition to the mediating role of organisational justice in the relationship between performance management practices and organisational commitment, extant literature also shows that trust creates conditions which affect employee responses to performance appraisal practices and commitment (McAllister, 1995; Macky and Boxall, 2007). Trust can be defined as a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive…

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    A. 2015). Individuals’ belief in self improvement from the past to the present has been explained using the temporal self appraisal theory (Wilson and Ross 2001; Ross and Wilson 2002) which posits that due to a self enhancement bias individuals evaluate their past selves in a manner leading to feeling good about their present self. Regarding a belief…

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    Appraisal theory arose from Arnold and Lazarus who emphasized that there must be an appraisal of significant meaning for an emotional arousing stimulus. That is, our current goals along with past experiences determine the significance of an event and our connection to it during appraisal. The significance of the event by appraisal determines the type of emotional response exhibited. Early skeptics to appraisal theory made mention that appraisals do not bring forth awareness and likely occur in…

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    Due to his concept about stress, he was able to make the Cognitive Appraisal Theory in 1984. It considers cognitive approaches in contrary to the GAS of Seyle. Furthermore, the Cognitive Appraisal Theory talks about two components of cognitive appraisal that occurs to a person who considers the two factors that particularly contribute to his actions in response to stress.The Primary Appraisal is evaluating the situation if it is threatening and if it will affect the person. Thus, three things…

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    This theory says "an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces - those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces)" (Warrilow, n.d). Based on information from this case, the restraining forces are greater than the driving forces and Alan has to seek ways to increase the driving forces. The driving forces at CA are quality of patient care, improved job performance, cost savings and improved…

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    Cons of Performance Appraisal Systems Along with the many advantages of performance appraisal systems, it all comes down to whether or not they are being implemented effectively and whether or not they are beneficial for the organization as well as the employee. A huge disadvantage of performance appraisals is that traditionally when conducted, they only involve the manager’s view of his or her subordinate’s performance. In many organizations, managers have a lot of responsibilities including…

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    Continuous Feedback

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    performance management programs (PMP) and appraisal processes, are critical for organizations in the retention of valuable human capital and the ability to fill specialized and highly technical positions. Continuous feedback could arguably be the key component in the success of such programs and the difference between success and failure. When implemented and communicated well, HR development programs have the potential to meet unique needs and improve conditions for all employees, meanwhile…

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