Amide

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    The optimized PF0 encapsulated hybrid NCs formulation was achieved by a two-step process (Fig 1) using nanoprecipitation and subsequently coating with chitosan. In Step-I, the nanoprecipitation technique was used to prepare PF0 loaded BSA NCs (PF0-ANC). In this nanoprecipitation technique, acetone was used as a desolvent [40]. Varying concentrations of PF0 solutions (125µM - 375µM) and BSA solution (156.25µM – 468.75µM) (Table 1) were mixed in a glass vial. The PF0 BSA solution was then added slowly, at a controlled speed of 0.2 ml/min using syringe pump, under continuous stirring at 600 rpm and the stirring was continued overnight to allow acetone evaporation. The NCs obtained in the above step was used for the future steps. In Step II, PF0-HNC was prepared by coating chitosan on the optimized PF0-ANC by solvent gelation technique. The PFC-ANC was allowed to interact with chitosan for a period of 2 hours. The chitosan coated BSA NCs were subsequently stabilized by TPP. The concentrations of chitosan and TPP were selected as described in our previous publication [24]. The optimized concentration of chitosan (0.125 %w/v) and TPP (0.125 %w/v)] were used to prepare PF0-HNC’s. Finally, these HNC’s stabilized with TPP were collected by centrifugation (16,000 g; 30 min) and lyophilized using 2 %w/v lactose as cryoprotectant for future use[41]. Figure 1: Illustration of the targeted PF0 loaded hybrid nanocarrier (PF0-HNC-E) preparation process. The first step involves formation…

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    5-Iodosalicylamide

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    The purpose of this lab was to iodonize salicylamide and characterize the product in order to determine its structure. The crude product of this reaction was recrystallized using ethanol. The white crystalline product was isolated using vacuum filtration and characterized. The percent yield of this reaction was determined to be 39%. The observed experimental melting point of the product was determined to be 235-137 oC. When compared to the literature melting point 228 oC of the predicted…

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    noted. The routine lab equipment included a rotary evaporator (evaporating solvents off by lowering boiling point through pressure and temperature changes), analytical balances measuring to one tenth of a milligram, and a lyophilizer (freeze-dryer). Synthesizing "PYRET-5" molecules "PYRET-5" (refer to Scheme 1 for structure) was the target molecule to be synthesized by replacing one of the –OH groups with 1-pyrenehexanoic which would be connected by either an ester or an amide group. Both…

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    The synthesis of paracetamol is the formation of an amide (paracetamol).This happens because an amine (4-aminophenol) is acetylated with an anhydride (acetic anhydride) to produce an amide. When 4-aminophenol is put in water at room temperature with acetic anhydride (first half of Figure 1) and then heated it produces the precipitate of the amide paracetamol (second half of Figure 1). 4-aminophenol is very activating, this is why only mild conditions are needed for this synthesis. In this…

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    FTIR Reflection

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    4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. It reveals a series of bands with different intensities. Fig. 1. FTIR spectrum of inner shell membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus Table 1. FTIR data on inner shell membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus Wave Number (cm-1) Transmittance (%) Characteristic vibrations of functional groups 3433 43.78 OH stretching mode of water 3088 57.83 Amide B 2924 53.43 CH2 Asymmetric stretch: mainly lipids 2852 57.48 CH2 Symmetric stretch: mainly lipids 1641 54.84 C=O stretching…

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    phthalimide because of the electron-donating R group, the difference in their nucleophilic strength is not substantial. The substituted imide is only slightly more nucleophilic as the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom is able to delocalize between three highly electronegative atoms. Step 3: Hydrolysis (similar to an ‘’amide’’ hydrolysis)  Common mistake: Some students mistakenly label a primary amine / amide as a tertiary amine / amide. Do you know why? Hofmann…

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    achieved by performing a TLC analysis using ninhydrin as an indicator to observe the composition of the amino acid as well as two of the components that make up aspartame. This is followed by the addition of an acid or base to aliquots of diet sodas to examine the resulting reactions and compare them to a known hydrolyzed aspartame sample. The most common method of synthesizing amides is through the reaction of a primary or secondary amine with a carboxylic acid derivative. The resulting bonds…

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    and ketones. What is thestructural difference between an aldehyde and a ketone? (A.C. 3.1) Aldehydes are known as the organic molecules that has a carbonyl group which is bonded to one hydrogen atom(at least) whereas in ketone is known as an organic compound that hold a carbonyl group that are attached and bonded to 2atoms of carbon. Their main difference is the location of the carbonyl group. Distinguish clearly between an amino group (in amines) and an amido group (in amides). A.C. 3.1) Amides…

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    hybridization states), electronic distribution (polarizability, inductive effects, charge and dipoles), lipid and water solubility, pKa, chemical reactivity, and hydrogen bonding capacity (Brown, 2012). Bioisosteric substitution of the amide group may improve metabolism. The amide group is labile in biological systems and is prone to hydrolysis mediated by peptidase enzymes (Griller, Howard, Marriott, & Scaiano, 1981). This may result in an increased rate of metabolism and therefore a shorter…

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    FT-Ir Analysis Essay

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    groups 1 3972.43 0.0086 Unknown 2 3859.33 0.0412 Unknown 3 3805.79 0.0733 Unknown 4 3396.46 0.9280 Medium N-H stretch Amides, alcohols and amines 5 2987.43 0.2450 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes and acids 6 2946.27 0.2810 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes and acids 7 2912.38 0.2040 Medium C-H stretch Alkanes 8 2834.49 0.3170 Weak C-H stretch Aldehydes and acids 9 2524.07 0.0337 Medium O-H stretch Carboxylic acids 10 2226.40 0.0033 Weak C ≡C stretch Alkynes 11 2043.60 0.0059 Unknown 12 1785.35…

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