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    Description Celiac Disease is a chronic small bowel disease characterized as an autoimmune disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. People inherit this genetic variation from their parents. Gluten, the trigger for Celiac Disease, is a combination of proteins, found in wheat, barley, and rye, called prolamins. Most common are the promanlines called gliadins, glutenins, hordeins, and secalin which all contain proline and glutamine residues. These residues make gluten resistant…

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    There are several genetic variants in the DNA sequence of the ABO gene that give rise to ABO subgroups. The most important of these are the A1 and A2 subgroups, which differ in the activity of their transferase enzyme gene products. The transferase activity in A2 individuals is less efficient in catalyzing the formation of the A antigen from the H antigen compared with those in the A1 subgroup, resulting in lower expression of A antigen. Type A2 individuals have relatively fewer Type I, Type III…

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    Perfectionism And Anorexia

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    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders struggled by many individuals today. Anorexia nervosa is a condition of the intense fear to gain weight, which results in consistent lack of eating. Bulimia nervosa, involves frequent episodes of binge eating followed by throwing up due to fear of gaining weight. The mortality rate for anorexia is the highest of all mental disorders, yet the genetic factors relating to it were once ignored. It is easy to think that anorexia and…

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    Different stages of our society, especially the youth been victim of environmental influences. As a matter fact, sometimes people fall into some practices, or join some groups which they don’t know too much about their vision and failed. People by their action often reflected the picture of their environment in term of acting and facing some situations. It is a fact that environment should be transformed by its living group. Nevertheless, people today depend on their mindset, let the environment…

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    A growing number of non-cardiac drugs have been found to delay cardiac repolarization, causing QT interval prolongation and predisposing patients to an increased risk of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias, known as torsade de pointes (TdP) (Letsas et al, 2007; Yap and Camm 2003; Sanguinetti and Tristani-Firouzi). These drugs include the second-generation, non-sedating antihistamines astemizole and terfenadine, withdrawn from the market in Europe and the United States (in 1997 and 1999,…

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    The stigma of mental illnesses has been a constant struggle for teenagers with any kind of mental disorder. The average age of onset of mental health disorders is 14 years; anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, depression and eating disorder. Psychosis and substance abuse almost all emerge during adolescence (Paus 6). The way society perceives these mental illnesses has improved because of neuroscience, as it has provided scientific evidence that they aren’t “faking” it. With the improvement of…

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    Artistotle/Plato (384BC-347BC): Artistotle was a Greek philosopher, born in 384BC died in 347BC. Through his work, the “Scala naturae” also called “the great chain of being”, Artistotle tried to analyze the relationship between all living things. “Scala naturae” is the earliest work of taxonomy in biology, which categorized species on Earth from the simplest to most complex. He also declared that species could not ever change over time. Nicholas Steno (1638-1686): Steno was a Danish scientist.…

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    According to Locard’s principle, at a crime scene traces are left by the perpetrator linking their presence to the scene, which can be crucial information for an investigator in a criminal investigation (Locard, 1930). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are left behind on items that are touched or handled even for a brief moment, and by swabbing the surface a DNA profile can be acquired (van Oorschot and Jones, 1997). Henceforth, there has been great interest in the conditions that allow primary, or…

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    Phenylketonuria Case Study

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    Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder and a common metabolic cause of mental retardation. This inborn error of metabolism is characterized by a deficiency in phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase activity, due to mutations in the Phe hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Phenylalanine hydroxylase is responsible for converting Phe to Tyr and requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), molecular oxygen, and iron for its action (Blau et al., 2010). The reductant, BH4 is maintained in the reduced…

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    Human Epigenetics

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    has been shown to be a vital component for many processes, including embryonic development in mammals. This particular link was first seen in a study in which researchers attempted to breed mice with reduced methylation levels, caused by a recessive allele. Mice embryos with a homozygous recessive genotype were not able to thrive and develop, showing that the methylation process is needed in order for mammalian reproduction to be successful. The exact mechanism and cause for this relationship is…

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