Foreign Literature Essay

  • Foreign Currency Hedging Case Study

    2.1 Introduction In this chapter, previous literature concerns with the determinants of foreign currency hedging will be discussed and assessed. Theories for the determinants of foreign currency hedging can be evaluated from two aspects: the level of foreign exchange exposure and how firm’s value will be affected; what kinds of characteristics for the firm influence its decisions for hedging. I will discuss the determinants of foreign currency hedging from this two points of view in the following sections. Multinational corporations (MNCs) involve in foreign currency hedging activities because of their foreign exposures will have an impact on its expected cash flows. The determinants of foreign currency exposure should be consistent with factors affecting FX hedging such as foreign operations, firm size and the fluctuations of stock returns. In addition, to what extent will the foreign exchange rate exposure changes firm value is an important area to research since it should be the root of cause for hedging. Maximizing shareholder’s equity is the primary target for all the managerial activities as well as risk management, it is consistent with stabilizing firm value. The theories of risk management have been developing for a long period, the aims for hedging is changing over time. Modigliani and Miller (1958) argue that hedging do not change the real value of firms in a perfect capital market, but Sultz (1996) state that hedging reduces the cost of financial distress to…

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  • Latin American Literature And La Era De Trujillo By Jesus Galindez

    Latin American Literature Literature often reflects the current state of political and foreign affairs. Latin American countries when undergoing foreign invasion or being under tyrannical rule, despite their troubles via literacy, authors utilized text to expose the rulers, injustices and present state. Governmental powers have also been known to use literature to help convince the masses of their political agendas and gain momentum with the people. Latin American countries, such as the…

    Words: 1174 - Pages: 5
  • Reflection Of Alain Locke's 'Foreword To The New Negro'?

    “America seeking a new spiritual expansion and artistic maturity, trying to found an American literature, a national art, and national music implies a Negro-American culture seeking the same satisfactions and objections” (xvi). Within this statement, he underscores the complex relationships that exist within national literary space, such as the one between “American literature” and “Negro-American culture,” where the latter has to deal with cultural double-consciousness. Furthermore, Locke…

    Words: 732 - Pages: 3
  • Foreign Aid And Economic Growth Case Study

    The relationship between foreign aid and economic growth has drawn great attention for years. The topic is extremely controversial one. There is now a large literature on the relationship between aid and growth. Empirical findings between aid and economic growth is mixed. Some studies found positive relationship between aid and GDP growth rate. For example, study conducted by Hansen and Trap (2000) examines the relationship between foreign aid and GDP per capita. They found that aid increases…

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  • Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda

    This research examines several cases of US humanitarian intervention in the 1990s, focusing on the transformation of United States foreign policy goals between George H.W. Bush’s “New World Order” platform in 1991 to Bill Clinton’s “Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations,” in 1994. These polices starkly contrast one another—the first offered preventive, non-combat measures while the latter focused on combative peacekeeping missions—although both are guised as humanitarian aid. The…

    Words: 1781 - Pages: 8
  • Medical Voluntourism: On-Field Case Study

    students. As a result, the literature on medical voluntourism is broad in context. Research in this field has credited medical voluntourism with bringing sustainable and beneficial healthcare to communities in need (Ott & Olson, 2011) while also providing a gratifying experience, both professionally and culturally, to the volunteers (Barbieri et al., 2012; Godfrey et al., 2014; Lough, 2011). Another spectrum of literature is far less optimistic. Researchers have analyzed the expected positive…

    Words: 1257 - Pages: 6
  • The Importance Of Domestic Expansion In Business

    and regulations and supporting institutions to enhance their evolution as illustrated by Chandler, (1977). Therefore, a correlation exists between firms’ domestic expansion and their tendency to expand beyond their national borders to foreign markets. On that note, firms’ internationalisation is a proof of their possession of ownership advantage at home that enables them to expand and compete well in a foreign market (Dunning, 2002). Though, extant literature had contributed and accorded us the…

    Words: 907 - Pages: 4
  • Advantages And Disadvantages Of International Market Entry Strategies

    2 Orientation: relevant literature, case organisation and research questions This section provides an overview of literature relating to international market entry strategies (section 2.1), followed by background information on PA as the case organisation (section 2.2). Finally research questions to be addressed are presented (section 2.3). 2.1 Literature review: international market entry strategies The strategy for a company involves a set of actions taken by management to achieve superior…

    Words: 1020 - Pages: 5
  • Relationship Between Exchange Rate And Foreign Direct Investment

    exchange rate and foreign direct investment (FDI) began to appear in the 1970s and since then a significant number of theories and empirical evidences have been documented. For example, the theories of Cushman (1985), Froot and Stein (1991), Blonigen (1997) and Kohlhagen (1977) are said to have shed a light for subsequent theoretical and empirical investigations. Among others, the theoretical works of Froot and Stein (1991), and Blonigen (1997a) have been the two most influential theories that…

    Words: 812 - Pages: 4
  • Key Factors For Abortion In Literature Review By Madge B. Haughton

    collaboration and some areas where the development of the research can occur. The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the research problem, explain the theoretical foundation, evaluate the relevance of the literature to the research question, analyze the synthesis, and finally discuss and make recommendations on the literature overall. Research problem Collaboration, a critical determinant of whether a company succeeds or fails in its attempt to expand globally, is the focus of…

    Words: 1335 - Pages:
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