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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The 3D definition of epidemiology calls it: “the study of the _________, __________, and ___________ of morbidity or mortality in the human population”. Name the 3 Ds.
Distribution, determinants, & deterrents
An epidemiologist is a public health scientist who:
uses inductive and deductive reasoning, uses data and statistics, is a detective of diseases and epidemics
The “disease iceberg concept” states that without the benefit of epidemiological data, the clinical picture of disease occurrence in a population would be that it is ________ severe and in ________ numbers than what is true.
Incidence is the number of ________ cases that __________.
new, occur over a period of time
Prevalence is the number of ________ cases that _________.
existing; are in a population at a point in time
“Bills of Mortality”
John Graunt
statistical analyses of population data & disease
William Farr
occupational health studies
associated cholera with contaminated water
John Snow
associated yellow fever with mosquito vectors
Walter Reed
associated pellagra with protein deficiency
Joseph Goldberger
associated smoking with lung cancer
Doll & Hill
inanimate objects that may be instrumental in disease transmission
a living insect or small animal that transports pathogens from person to person
a location or host where pathogens can exist and multiply
a person or animal that harbors a pathogen without symptoms and may transmit disease without knowing it
The four components of an epidemiology triangle are:
host, agent, time and environment
In the ADVANCED epidemiological triangle, ______ is used in place of “agent”.
causative agents
In a point source epidemic the data would reveal…
new cases appearing all in one place and time.
Any disruption in the function and/or structure of the body can be considered a disease. True or false?
__________ is the relative capacity or strength of a pathogen’s ability to cause illness
List, in order of increasing duration and decreasing severity, disease:
acute, subacute, chronic
Recovering from an infectious disease results in which type of immunity?
Naturally acquired, active
Getting antibody protection by breastfeeding results in what type of immunity?
Naturally acquired, passive
A study on disease occurrence in a human population that did not begin with a hypothesis would be a(n) ___________ study
An epidemiological study in which the investigators controlled the level of exposure to measure the effect on outcome would be a(n) __________ study
An epidemiological study of a selected group of subjects that is designed to assess disease outcomes that haven’t yet occurred is a(n) _________ cohort study.
In the report on Salmonella infections in Maine, how was the level of disease (i.e., the attack rate) determined?
By interviewing all available people where the outbreak occurred.
List the 3 viral diseases that the MMR vaccine protects against:
Measles, Mumps and Rubella
By what percentage did the suicide rate for U.S. 10-24 year olds increase from 2003 to 2004?
A prospective cohort study followed 8,542 women for 10 years to determine if alcohol consumption increased the risk of breast cancer. No significant association was found. Twelve thousand women had been enrolled in the study at it’s initiation, but 3,458 had withdrawn during the 10-year period. A follow-up of spouses, friends and relatives of the women who withdrew revealed that more than 60% of them had developed breast cancer and that nearly 84% were regular drinkers.
selection bias
A large epidemiological study found that elderly adults with dementia were more likely to develop liver cancer than those without dementia. The investigators, however, could offer no plausible biological mechanism for the association between dementia and liver cancer.
In a large hospital-based case-control study of smoking and lung cancer, controls consisted of patients with noncancerous chronic pulmonary diseases, such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The investigators were surprised to find that the association between smoking and lung cancer was relatively weak (RR = 1.4, p<0.05)
selection bias
The authors of a cross-sectional study hypothesized that lack of regular exercise is associated with obesity in children. Their study of 12 children in Michigan, however, failed to show a significant association between exercise habits and obesity (p=0.11)
sampling error
The investigators of a prospective cohort study collected blood samples from the participants at eh beginning of the study and froze them for later analysis. A subsequent nested case-control study was conducted to determine if blood levels of certain hormones were associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The previously stored blood samples were analyzed for the cases and controls. It was later determined that the samples had degenerated during the storage period because of a failure to maintain consistent temperatures.
measurement bias
In a case-control study of the relationship between intravenous drug use and HIV infection, the investigators discovered after the study that the case group had tended to underreport their drug use due to fears arising from previous convictions for drug-related violations. Underreporting was not a problem in the control group, however, which was not under medical supervision at the time.
measurement bias
A case-control study was designed to test whether persons exposed to certain types of pesticides during early childhood were more likely to develop neurological problems in later adulthood. The results were statistically significant. The cases consisted of those with severe but treatable neurological disorders, and the controls consisted of those without any diagnosed neurological disorders. Both the cases and controls were asked detailed questions about their pesticide exposures during early childhood.
measurement bias
An epidemiologist reported the following conclusion from a large randomized controlled trial during a national meeting: “Daily use of 500 milligrams of vitamin C for a period of one year was associated with a reduced frequency of upper respiratory infections in children under 10 years of age (RR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.6 – 1.7).”
sampling error
Three hundred cases and 600 controls were selected among mothers for a case-control study to see if maternal coffee consumption was related to low birth weight in the mother’s babies. Data were collected on past coffee consumption patterns for the mothers and on cigarette smoking, a known risk factor for low birth weight. The overall association between maternal coffee consumption and low birth weight was reported to be strong (OR = 3.4). When the data were later reanalyzed and adjusted for cigarette smoking, however, the association was found to be nonexistent (OR = 1.0)
An epidemiologist examines the association between the use of diet pills and migraine headaches using a case-control study design. His subjects are outpatients at a large community hospital. He finds that those using diet pills are more likely to complain of migraines, but he also discovers that those who have migraine headaches and use diet pills are more likely to be referred to the community hospital for outpatient diagnostic testing than those who have migraines but are not using diet pills.
selection bias