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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the three types of immunity against viruses? Give examples.

How does the immune system combat viruses?

•Infection is prevented by type I interferons as part of innate immunity and neutralizing antibodies contributing to adaptive immunity.

•Once infection is established, infected cells are eliminated by NK cells in the innate response and cytotoxic T cells in the adaptive response.

- main weapons are type 1interferons (preventing infections due t antiviral state) and NK cells (killing infected cells)

Describe how antibodies combat viruses (4)

- bind and inactivate virions

•Bind to capsids or envelope proteins and neutralise i.e. block receptor or change receptor conformation

•opsonisation of virus particles – phagocytic clearance

•phagocytosis and lysis of enveloped viruses through activation of complement

How do cytotoxic T-lymphocytes combat viruses? (4)

•CTLs kill virus-infected cells

•T cells are activated by engaging with MHC-viral peptide complex

•Perforin and granzyme molecules destroy the infected cells

•CD8+ T cells produce cytokines and chemokines that recruit antiviral T cells and clear viral infection

List 4 viral evasion strategies

• Disarm innate immunity

• prevent MHC presentation

• hide e.g. in non-differentiated cells (e.g. herrpes simplex)

• modification of viral ligands to prevent recognition

List 3 consequences of viral divergence

- increased infection e.g. pandemics

- change in host e.g. species

- resistance to antivirals and vaccines