• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


1) Powerful nuns who oversaw the lands owned bytheir communities; they played a significant role in the feudal landholdingsystem.

anchoritic monasticism

The form of monasticism practiced by the “desertfathers and mothers” who withdrew from society. Anchorites= hermits


11th century archbishop of Canterburywho moved away from the prinical of scriptural authority. His most notablecontribution was the ontologicalargument for the existence of God


The early followers of Jesus who witnessed his return as the risen Lord and were sent out into the world to proclaim him

Thomas Aquinas

Dominican theologian considered the greatest of the scholastics, author of Summa Theologiae


The early theologian that argued that Jesus was like a substance with God rather than the same substance


The Bishop of Alexandria who argued that Jesus was of the same substance as God


Christs restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, variously interpreted as divine victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example


Bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa, whose theological writings shaped western christian traditions

Beghards, Beguines

Lay men nd women respectively who lived together in semi-monastic communities that were usually not under the authority of a local bishop

Bernard of Clairvaux

12th century founder of a Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux

Benedicts Rule

The prototype for western monastic life, written in the 6th century by St. Benedict


the supervising priest of an ecclesiastical district called a diocese

Jean Calvin

The french Protestant theologian, seen as the father of the Reformed churches, who emphasized a radical doctrine of sin and grace


A standard, a scriptural canon is the list of books acknowledged s scripture. The list of acknowledged saints is also canon. All in all, it is the accumulated body of Church regulations and discipline


an ascetic monastic order of hermits established on Mount Carmel in Palestine. After the failure of the Crusades, many members migrated to Europe and reorganized themselves as a mendicant order


A monastic order that demanded a vow of silence and considerable austerity from its members.

cenobitic monasticism

The form of monasticism practiced by religious who live in a community with one another


A spiritual gift such as preaching, healing, speaking in tongues, and prophesying, which surfaced in local worshipping communities in the period of the early Church. Movements that emphasize such gifts are described as "charismatic"


A theory of who Jesus was by nature and in substance


An austere monastic order, founded in France in 1098, a particularly strict branch of Cistercians, known as Trappists, observe a rule of silence

City of God

Work by Augustine of Hippo, which articulated a vision for the relationship between sacred and secular in the age of the decline of the roman empire

Cluniac Fathers

An order, founded in 910, at the centre of a movement to reform monasticism by bringing its institutions under the control of religious rather than secular authorities


The first Christian emperor, who convened the council of Nicaea in 325 CE

Council of Chalcedon

the 5th century church council where the controversies over the nature of Jesus humanity and divinity were finally resolved

Council of Nicaea

4th century church council that formally established many beliefs about Christ


brief formal statements of doctrinal beliefs, often cited in unison by congregations


a series of wars to drive islam out of the holy land


the third order of male ministry in the early church


the female counterpart of the deacons office in the early church, devoted to serving woman and children in the community


A mendicant preaching order formed in the early 1200s to combat "Albigensian heresy"


The belief that the two natures of Jesus, human and divine, are united in the second person of the trinity


the movement for reunion or collaboration between previously separate branches of Christianity


literally "oversight", the foundational office of authority in early christianity


The humanist thinker who laid the groundwork for reformation theologians such as luther


In Germany, a name for the Lutheran Church, In English, the name for conservative protestants with a confident sense of the assurance of divine grace and the obligation to preach it.


Formal censure or expulsian from a church for doctrinal error or moral misconduct


Mendicant order who's monks live by a rule based on the life and example of Francis of Assisi


A member of a mendicant order


a 20th century reaction to modernity, originally among protestants who maintained the infallibility of scriptures and doctrine


speaking in "tongues": a distinguishing feature of charismatic groups such as Pentecostals, in which people who feel filled with the spirit begin speaking in what they believe is a special heavenly language. The ability to interpret such speech is also considered a spiritual gift


A worldview based on a radical dualism, which prioritized reason and spirit over the physical.


"Good news", the news of redemption that the Hebrew prophets had promised. The Gospels are the accounts of Jesus' life attributed to his disciples Mark, Mathew...


A belief or practice that is contrary to the accepted orthodoxy

Holiness Churches

Protestant churches that believe their members have already received "holiness" as a gift from God


"image" a distinctive Byzantine form of portraiture used to depict Jesus, Mary and the saints


the intellectual movement that is seen as a necessary precursor of the Protestant reformation


The embodiment of the divine in human form: The Christian teaching that God became human in the person of Jesus


Releases from time in purgatory


a prescribed form for public worship


"word" in the sense of eternal divine intelligence and purpose

Martin Luther

the father of the protestant reform


An intensely dualistic religion, founded in the 3rd century that grew out of Syrian Christianity under the influence of Gnosticism


Christians who have died for their faith


The Roman Catholic name for the Eucharist

mendicant orders

orders that instead of withdrawing from the world and living predominantly in closed communities, dedicate themselves to pastoral work, serving the people.


The belief that christ had only one nature, either divine or a synthesis of divine and human


The pursuit of intensely experienced spiritual union with the divine


The position that there was one (divine) nature in Christ and it was separate from the human Jesus

New Testament

The collection of 27 books. authoritative for the early christian church

Nicene Creed

The statement of faith agreed upon at Nicaea


woman living a common life under monastic vows

ontological argument

Anselms argument for the existence of God not based on observation but rather on logic


correct belief, in any church, the accepted doctrine


simple stories told to illustrate a lesson


in the early church, the 5 bishops who held primacy of authority by geographical region: Rome, constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and jerusalem. Today it is those bishops in the eastern orthodox church who preside over specific geographical regions

St Paul

The Jewish convert to christianity who founded a number of christian communities and wrote them letters of instruction and guidance

Pauline Epistles

letters attributed to paul in the NT, some of which were probably written by others

St peter

"prince of apostles" who became the first bishop of Rome


A heresy according to which human nature was not so tainted by original sin as to be incapable of choosing good or evil without divine assistance.


the 15th day after easter, when the apostles experienced the presence of the Holy Spirit


Modern protestant groups that emphasize glossolalia as a sign of the presence of the HS and hence of the individuals holiness or spiritual perfection


A movement that originated in late 17th century lutheran german, expressing spontaneous devotion to God and a confident certainty of forgiveness gained through religious experience


the head of the RCC


the notion that God anticipates or controls human actions and foreordains every individual to heaven or hell


literally elder

reformed churches

churches that are calvinist in doctrine and often presbyterian in governance


a ritual action seen as signifying divine grace


people recognized by the church for their faith and virtue, (1 miracle rule)


the holy writings of christianity, consisting of the hebrew bible in greek translation, which christians call the "old testament" and "new testament" accounts of Jesus' life and early years of the christian community


one of the five major episcopal areas

synoptic gospels

the gospels of Mathew mark Luke and john seen "together"

teleological argument

From Greek telos "end" or "purpose", an argument inferring the existence of God from the perception of purpose or design in the universe


A state in which all of society is controlled by the church or religious leaders


bread and wine---->body and blood


The earliest known order for women in christianity originally a response to the social problem of providing support for poor widows in the community