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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phenomenological Study of Religion
Focuses on transcedent (beyond all finite things) realities and the way they orient people towards this world and other worlds;Recreating the world from the believer's perspective.
Reductionistic Study of Religion
Attempting to look for an underlying cause or motivation behind a religion; built in skeptisism
Marx's View on Religion
Religion is a way of short-circuiting the revolution that would normal occur; poor people are able to be distracted by religion therefore not wanting what the rich people have.
Freud's View on Religion
Attempt to recreate child-like security (communal neurosis and religion as illusion)
Premodern Religion
There is no separation between religion and society. By being a member of that culture, you are automatically accepting that religon.
Modern Religion
Seperation between public life and private life; assigning politics to public life and religion to personal and family life. People rely more on science than religion.
Postmodern Religion
No one source of authority that everyone relies on. People are constantly forming their own perspectives; pluralistic society
one who rejects important aspects of modernity and wantsto go back to what he or she perceives as the pure "authentic" social/political order
binding agreement; God established a covenant with Israel, making them a holy people and reminding them: “I will be your God and you shall be my people, I will guide and protect you and you will obey my commandments.”
The dispersion of a religious ppl outside their geographic homeland, where they must live as a minority among others. Jews who were dispersed in the Roman Empire (outside of the protectorate of Palestine) were known as the Jews of Diaspora. Hellenistic Jews were leaders. The great missionaries of Judaism, who used Greek philosophy to explain the meaning of the biblical stories.
commentary/debate on how to apply biblical commands
“to walk in the way of God,” by choosing life and following commandments
Jerusalem’s inhabitants, secular Israelis in modern Western dress who do not consider themselves to be religious Jews but rather only ethnically Jewish, choose to ignore the Sabbath and most other religious rules.
a diet that forbids jews to eat pork, to mix meat and milk, and so on.
the writings that form the core of the Talmud; specific laws that apply biblical commentary to everyday life
commandments require deeds of loving and kindness by which the people would embody their lives the justice and mercy of God as a model for all the world
a creed of Judaism, “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one”
oral traditions believed to be passed down from Moses that have been codified and written
Bible of Judaism as we have it today, the norm now
Jewish place of worship
Theodor Hezel; political movement in the 19th CE for Jews to return to Israel
Born in Egypt; found by Pharoh's daughter and led Jews out of slavery; given Torah by God at Mt. Sinai and formed covenant.
Jewish Covenant
a binding agreement with Israel, making them a holy people and reminding them “ I will be your God and you shall be my people, I will guide and protect you and you will obey my commandments”
Exile & Return
when the Persians destroyed the first temple of Jerusalem, it caused changes in fundamental practices and customs of the jewish religion, therefore breaking the covenant; when the Torrah became the role of Jewish life
What is the Torah and why is it so central to Jewish practice?
Torah- represents in creating the people of Israel, God gave them a gift to tip the balance between good and evil in favor of good. This was the dual Torah, the sacred oral and written teachings concerning God's revelation to his people; Central to jewish practice because it shows good and evil and how God teaches his people.
Rabbinic Judaism
temples & priests less prominent and synagogues and rabbis more prominant; comes about after the second temple is destroyed and the dispora begins.
Biblical Judaism
themes of obedience and covenant; consisted of the Sadduces, Pharissees, Zealots
Roots of Anti-Semitism
Jewish/Christian relations poor; idea of supersession (since Jews rejected Jesus, Christians become God's new chosen people)
Examples of Anti-Semitism
Jews as "Christ Killers"; Blood Libel (Jews accused of sacrificing Christian children for Passover); accused of spreading Black Plague; stereotype of being greedy and using people
Orthodox Jews
committed to observing Jewish law; resist reform; very conservative
Conservative Jews
“middle of the road” practice is more important than belief, larges percent of Jewish Americans are considered Conservative Jews; open to biblical questioning and mixed seating but believe that in many older traditions like prayer shawls, dietary code, and retaining Hebrew
Reform Jews
pro-assimilation, less Hebrew, mixed seating, less distinctive dress; ethics are more important than specific laws; Torah is viewed as human creativity, not divine revelation; focused on human’s choice of God, not the other way around; Messiah not taken literally but rather as something we should strive for.
priestly establishment; upperclass, friendly with Romans; literal observance of the Torah especially the Penetude (first 5 books)
synagogues important; middle class; neutral towards the Romans; very similar to Rabbinic Judaism
ed rebellion in 66CE against Romans which changes Judaism and causes Dispora and starts Rabbinic Judaism
Secularization Thesis
Modernization drastically reduces peoples' need for religion; ie: Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the division of Church and State
Anti-Secularization Thesis
counterevidence to secularization thesis: globalization increased religious creativity, not downplayed it; religion still has role in US politics; the seperation of church and state gave all religions equal opprotunity; people don't view things as church v. science
refers to views of St. Augustine, for example, his view of the separation of church and state, in which the state is answerable to the church in religious matters while the church is answerable to the state in secular matters- yet both exist to promote the spread of the gospel
view of the unity of church and state attributed to the first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine, in
which the state exists to rule over and protect the church as the official religion of the empire
Enlightenment view that god created the world the way a watchmaker creates a clock and leaves it to run on its own without interference
refers to pietistic Christian movements that arose in response to the Enlightenment and also dogmatic divisions within Protestantism; emphasizes the unifying power of conversion as an emotional transformation rather than a rational/dogmatic one
Justification by Faith
Protestant Reformation doctrine formulated by Martin Luther, asserting that humans are saved by faith as a gift rather than through works of obedience to the law
Original Sin
the sin of Adam and Eve, who disobeyed the command of God not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; said to have affected all human beings by corrupting their will so that they are often unable to do the good they intend
refers to churches that emphasize possession by the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues
ritual actions, such a baptism and Holy Communion, said to impart the grace of God to Christians, usually through the meditation of ordained clergy
God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; meant to suggest that the transcendant God can be immanent in the world without losing his transcendance- when God acts in the world (as Son or Spirit), God does not cease to be fatrt and Creator of the universe; therefore God is not many gods but one God in three persons
Two Natures, One Person
a doctrine affirmed by the Council of Chalcedon in the one person of Jesus aretwo natures saidto coexistinunity but without confusion or mixture, so Jesus is fully human in everything except sin
originally Anabaptist- believe that you shouldn’t be baptized at birth but rather it should be a decision made when you are an adult.
Anglican Church
founded by Henry VIII; seen as the "middleway" between Catholocism and Protestantism
Apostle Paul
became the first great mssionary of the Christian movement, letters make up 1/4 of the New Testament