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87 Cards in this Set

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The European Enlightenment period is also known as what?

the age of reason

years of enlightenment?

1660-1770

_______ apparent in prevailing taste

urbanity (sophisticated, witty, logical)

writers sensitive to_______, just and regular ________.

fitness


opinions

this was an age of presumed agreements on:

man and nature


Greek and Roman literature


Christianity (evident, not mysterious)


industry meant prosperity


self-seeking attitudes benefited society

what was the standard of literature?

Roman/Augustan

true/false: Christianity was one of many religions during the enlightenment

FALSE; Christianity was the only worldview during the enlightenment period

18th century: _____ in science, literature, and philosophy

Rationalism

what was the civil and political society founded on?

essays by John Locke


what were some of John Locke's foundational essays?

Two Treatises of Government (1690)


Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)

the enlightenment ethos:

rationalism (logic)


materialism


empiricism


determinism (all is predetermined by God)


Utilitarianism (maximum use)

all of this order of the enlightenment era gave rise to rules in:

drama


architectural balance


simple, coherent prose


the heroic couplet

what was the result of literature in this era?

18th cent writers were NOT personal, NOT individual

who was Cromwell?


(1642-1660)

led forces of English civil war


parliament


his body was dug up, half rotted, and hung out when Charles II came to rule

When did the English civil war occur?

1642-49


what did government look like from 1649-1660?

common wealth; no king

who was on King's side?

aristocracy


high church


peasants

who was on Parliament's side?

puritans


cromwell

what happened in 1596?

puritans v. king

what came out in 1560?

Geneva Bible

what came out in 1611?

the KJV Bible (Anglican)


banned the Geneva Bible

what happened in 1649?

king Charles I executed

who ruled from 1652 to 1658?

Cromwell

which bad king ruled from 1658 to 1660?

Richard

who came to rule in 1660?

Charles II

what did this era seem to be about?

Aristocracy and keeping the rest down

what is the difference between the enlightenment era and romanticism era?

enlightenment: rationalism/reason


romanticism: emotion/the individual

nineteenth cent. romanticism

resurgence of INSTINCT and EMOTION over rationalism of the 18th cent.

what important history happened in 1789?

the storming of the Bastille adn the 1803-1815 Napoleonic wars (French Revolution)


cutting off heads in 1793

Romanticism was the "amorous of the far," escape the ______ and ______ to live in a world of _______

escape the familiar and reality to live in a world of imagination

romanticism showed a shift from poetic diction to _______ _________. From ascendancy of reason, to ascendancy of ________.

common language; imagination

withdrawal from outer experience to _____; a trust in the validity of the ______ impulse.

inner; natural

natural could be what?

anti-intellectual, noble savage, the child/nature itself

this new common language/inner and imaginative way of writing did what to the poetic world?

shocked the poetic world and literary critics raged, while common/everyday people loved the reality of it

in its most uncompromising form, romanticism is ______

mysticism

romanticism rewrote history and did what?

changed perspective

Byron

a romantic; a representative of his own age and a satirist, a belated representative of the Augustans (bad boy)

Byronic hero

an extreme variation of the romantic hero archetype; usually have greater degree of psychological and emotional complexity

traditional romantic heroes

defined by their questioning/rejecting of standard social conventions and behavioral norms, alienation from larger society, focus on self as center of existence, and their ability to inspire others to commit acts of kindness.

John Keats; when did he live?

1795-1821

works of John Keats include:

poems, endymion, Annus Mirabilis, Publishes Lamia, Isabella, the eve of St. Agnes, and other poems

where was keats born?

London

who was Keats father?

a prosperous coachman; he died in hunting accident when Keats was 8

what happened to Keats' mother?

she died when Keats was 14 to TB

what did Keats look like?

short but handsome

what was Keats in school for?

Medicine; medical student at Guy's hospital (1815). He was apprenticed to a surgeon

Sleep and Poetry, 1816, included what?

pastoral (country side)


lyric (short)


narrative (stories)


epic (12 books of poetry)

what was London and Leigh Hunt, 1817, about?

His desire for middle class which was frowned upon


middle class did not have rights; politically incorrect

What happened with Endymion?

failure; he declared it an experiment

what unfortunate medical problem does Keats die of?

Tuberculosis

his love life?

in love with Fanny Brawne but cannot marry her

where does Keats die?

in Rome, 1821


moved to rome in 1820

Keats characteristic presentation is usually a tangle of inseparable but irreconciliable _____

opposites

what was the foundation of opposites?

1. we are bound physically in a physical world


2. we are compelled to imagine more than we can know or understand


3. sense of tragic acceptance

examples of opposites:

melancholy in delight


pleasure in pain


high intensity of love as an approximation of death


inclines equally toward a life of sensation and a life of thought

what was the result of Wordsworth's didacticism and egotism?

Keats developed his own doctrine: imaginative insight and suspended judgement

where did people move after the romantic perspective?

to realism and naturalism (1850-1914)

during realism/naturalism what was increasing/decreasing?

rise in transportation and communication


decline in social class barriers

what was happening to the middle class?

rising and demanding more political power

what was happening to religion?

decreased in influence on both intellectual leaders and the masses

what was the main influence during this era?

science

realism

truthful representation in literature of reality, physically and psychologically

naturalism

they stressed realism but added emphasis on the analogies of science, implying that human actions are a result of heredity and implacable social forces, that people aren't fully responsible for their actions and that the universe is totally indifferent to human suffering

theatrical conventions of modern drama

the picture frame stage


Stanislavsky's method acting (try to become the character)

dramatists of realism/naturalism:

Tolstoy in Russia


Dostoyevsky in Russia


Flaubert in France


Dickens in England


Isben in Norway


GB Shaw in Britian


Henry James and Theodore Dreiser in America

How did Leo Tolstoy grow up?

born into the aristocracy but gave up that wealth to found a sect of "primitive Christianity"

Tolstoy vs_______

modern materialism, aristocracy and wealth




he was always looking for the truth

what are some of Tolstoy's works?

war and peace


Anna Karenina


a Confession


the death of Ivan Ilyich

who does Ivan Iliych represent?

all of society wanting more, following the ways of culture, finding meaning

influences of realism

industrial revolution (growing middle class)


scientific determinism (secularism, materialism, and atheism)

who wrote Hedda Gabler?

Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)

Ibsen biography

born in Norway! (no one read norweigan writers)


apprenticed to apothocary at 16


wrote first play at 21


1.5 yrs at university at 22


playwright and producer at Bergen theater


director at theater of Oslo

what did Ibsen depict in plays?

secularism and middle class

had an influence on...

Chekov


Shaw

what tactic did Ibsen use?

retrospective exposition (explains layers of the past as the play progresses/explains the past afterwards)

true/false: Ibsen uses religion in plays

FALSE (all about intelligence and self-sacrifice)

who was the first major playwright not from major european country?

Ibsen

20th century MODERNISM:

more accurate representation of reality


claim to portraying a better understanding of human consciousness

rationalism created some hope until ____

WW1

influences of modernism?

Mendel, Dalton (atomic theory), Darwin

some reacted against rationalism with emphasis on?

individual

what created modernism ?

war

HL Menchen and other surrealists

writer; american mercury newspaper, told us to question what we know

significance of this era?

can now be openly secular because Christians from Victorians was thought to have brought war

characteristics of modernism?

alienation, loss, despair, historical, discontinuity, pessimism, and stoicism




no emotion, every man for himself


the individual man over the social man


anti-intellectual, will/passion over reason

existential

modernism was existential; war had no meaning


"only acting upon things brings meaning, usually despair"

what was the new rule in fiction and poetry?

imagery