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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A magnetized device that greatly aided sailors during the age of exploration
Distance from the equator
A ship with large square sails to provide power and smalle triangular sails to provide maneuverability
Line of Demarcation
Line of separation in the Atlantic Ocean that decided the areas that could be colonized by Spain and Portugal
Sailing around the world
"Conquerors" sent from Spain to the New World to search for riches, to evangelize the Indians, and to establish Spanish authority
An "assistant king" appointed by the Spanish king to oversee affairs in the New World
Commercial Revolution
The economic changes in European business practice and thinking during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
Economic system that held that the wealth of colonies should benefit the mother country
Economic system designed to advance wealth
Supply of money
Marco Polo
Merchant who went to China and through his stories stirred the popular imagination with tales of strange customs and unbelievable riches in the Far East.
Prince Henry
"The Navigator" was largely responsible for Portugal's early success in exploration. Sometimes called "the greatest figure in the history of exploration" even though he never went on an expedition. His principle goal was the circumnavigation of Africa.
Bartolomeu Dias
Sent by the king of Portugal down the coast of Africa and was the first person to round the tip of Africa which he named "The Cape of Storms" and the king later renamed "The Cape of Good Hope"
Vasco da Gama
Sent by the king of Portugal to find a trade route by sea to the Far East. He rounded the coast of Africa and eventually landed in India where in spite of the opposition from the Muslims was able to trade for spices. This gave Portugal a lucrative spice trade with India.
Christopher Columbus
Was sent by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to try and find a trade route to the Far East by sailing west. He inadvertently landed in the Bahamas but mistook it for the East Indies.
From Portugal but sailed for Spain; his expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe even though he was killed in the philippines without making it all the way back home. This has been called "the greatest single human achievement on the sea."
Highly advanced Indian civilization that flourished in the Yucatan Peninsula from the fourth through the tenth centuries.
Central American civilization that flourished after the Mayan civilization; founded the city of Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico City) and was later conquered by the Spanish
South American (present day Peru) empire from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries; conquered by Pizarro for their gold and silver
Spanish explorer who was the first to see the Pacific Ocean which he named the "South Sea"
"Called the greatest of the Conquistadors", in his search for gold, he defeated the Aztecs and destroyed their city. On its ruins he begin to build what is now Mexico City.
Aztec king who thought Cortes was one of their chief gods, and met them with gifts of gold and jewels. He was later stoned b his own people as a traitor.
Probably the cruelest of the conquistadors, with only a handful of men he conquered the Inca empire for their gold and silver.
Hernando de Soto
Spanish explorer who discovered the Mississippi River and explored the southeastern United States.
He set out from Mexico in 1540 to find the "Seven Cities of Cibola" which were reportedly rich with gold. He lead his expedition into what is now New Mexico, Arizona, Kansas and Texas. because he and de Soto found no gold, Spain decided to concentrate on South America instead of North America.
Jacques Cartier
The first great French explorer to the New World who made three voyages to what is now eastern Canada.
Samuel de Champlain
Called the "Father of New France" explored and colonized the areas around the Saint Lawrence River and founded Quebec. the Indians led him to two pf the Great Lakes - Ontario and Juron and to what is now called Lake Champlain.
Jacques Marquette
A French explorer and Jesuit missionary who explored the Mississippi River downstream to a point in southern Arkansas before turning back.
Louis Joliet
A French explorer who, along with Marquette, explored the Mississippi River downstream to a point in souterh Arkansas before turning back
Henry Hudson
An Englishman who was the most famous explorer for the Netherlands. He explored the northeastern coast of America and gave the Dutch a claim to the region. In 1621 the Dutch founded the city of New Amsterdam, which is today New York City.
John Cabot
An Italian sailor who was hired to lead the first English expedition to North America. He was the first European ater the Vikings to set foot on the North American mainland. He paved the way for the founding of English colonies on the North American continent a century later.
First permanent English settlement in the New World; located in Virginia
John Smith
The leader of Jamestown, the English settlement in the New World
horses and firearms
These were the Spanish conquistadors main advantage over the natives of the New World
major reason for the decline of Portugal as a great power
The inability to adequately defend and administer so vast an empire
primary reason the Dutch established a colony at Cape Town
supplying ships