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What was the effect of the meji Restoration on Japan?

New ruler in Japan, sent scholars to other countries to learn western ways : technology & foreign customs resulted in steamboats & railroads being built & a new constitution being written. Japan became first non-western country to successfully copy & adapt western ways.

Describe Chinese foreign relations during the Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty increased interaction with Europe & this interference which was extremely unpopular in china. Ex. British develop a Sphere of Influence in China resulting in the Opium Wars – where China was defeated. Also the Taiping Rebellion which was a rebellion against the Qing & with European help millions of Chinese were killed when the govt. put this revolt down.

What were the causes of the American Revolution, and what colonial grievances were listed in the Declaration of Independence?


Example of English Civil War & Glorious Revolution. British govt. started taxing the colonists in order to pay off their massive debt from the French & Indian War. The colonists felt that these new taxes had been imposed without their consent, violating their rights as English subjects.

Taxes

What were the causes of the French Revolution & what was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

Unfair division in France between 3 estates. 1st & 2nd could always outvote the 3rd 98% of the population, Enlightenment ideas, financial crisis; immediate cause was the storming of the Bastille. The Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen was issued by the National Assembly & proclaimed that the government rested on the consent of the people (popular sovereignty), not on the divine right of the king. Said that Frenchmen were free & equal.

1+2 > 3 =98%

Who was Robespierre? Describe the Reign of Terror.


The committee of Public Safety took over the French Revolution & began a Reign of Terror. They were directed by Robespierre & other radical leaders, who were idealistic follower of Rousseau. They felt they needed to use violence to achieve their goals. They used savage repression to crush the rebels. Estimated about 40,000 killed during this radical period.

What effect did the American and French Revolutions have on people around the world?


Inspired revolutionary change. Showed oppressed people around the world that revolutionary action can work in achieving self-determination.

How did the Napoleonic Code reflect Enlightenment principles?


Napoleon created stability by establishing the Code Napoleon. It consolidated revolutionary ideals like social equality, religious toleration, & trial by jury.

How did the reign of Napoleon lead to the Latin American Revolutions?


It stimulated the growth of nationalism. Napoleon weakened Spain, causing it to lose its colonial empire in Latin America.

List the four factors that contributed to the Industrial Revolution’s start in England?


1) Geographical advantages – had many harbors & rivers, an island protected from invasion, & close to European markets. 2) Transportation & communication – had well-developed coastal trade, canals, & most powerful navy in the world. 3) Large Colonial Empire – brought raw-materials from colonies. 4) Powerful middle class – promoted free enterprise & brought together capital, labor & new industrial inventions. 5) Agricultural improvements – farmers used scientific methods to boost the food supply (enclosure, crop rotating, and animal breeding) fewer people were needed to work on farms.

What were the positive effects of the Industrial Revolution?

Positive – brought about a fundamental change in the way goods were made. It introduced mass production & the use of new source of energy to meet human needs. People started making goods in factories instead of home & began to use steam power to run machinery. Science also became more closely linked to technology, resulting in a stream of constant innovations.

What were the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution?

Negative – while factory owners grew richer & more powerful the plight of workers grew worse. Appalling working conditions (long hours, little pay, unsafe machines, child labor). Urbanization cause cities to become overcrowded & unsanitary. Factory smoke polluted the air. Crime & mortality rates rose.

Urbanization

- with the shift of work to factories, large numbers of workers moved from their farms to & homes in the countryside to cities. This migration marked one of the largest population shifts in history.

Communism- free enterprise

- The freedom to make their own choices in deciding what to buy, where to work, and what to make.

laissez-faire

– Adam Smith advocated this type of economic system where the govt. takes a hands off approach to the economy

labor unions

– some workers organized into unions & threatened to strike if they did not obtain higher wages & better conditions

James Watt

– a Scottish inventor who improved the steam engine by creating separate chambers for the steam to get hot & to cool down. His steam engine made steam power available for mechanical purposes. His improvements allowed factory construction to be placed anywhere, since factories were no longer dependent on water to power machines.

Karl Marx

- a critic of the new capitalist system. He & Friedrich Engels published their ideas in the Communist Manifesto. He predicted that eventually working conditions would get so bad that workers would eventually rise up & overthrow their capitalist rulers in a violent revolution. After the revolution a he said workers would create an equal society & li8ve in perfect harmony. He called this system Communism.

Adam Smith

– Capitalist who explained this theory in his book the Wealth of Nations, advocated a laissez-faire or “hands-off” approach by the government regarding the economy.

Louie Pasteur

– developed the “germ theory” idea that diseases are caused by germs & that by improving sanitation, infections, diseases & deaths would improve. He developed vaccines the process of Pasteurization, heating liquids to kill germs.

Marie Curie

- chemist & physicist who experimented with radioactivity & first woman to win the Nobel Prize

Thomas Edison

– creative American inventor of the electric light bulb, phonograph, & motion pictures.

William Wilberforce

– English reformer & devout Christian who was responsible for leading the flight to abolish slavery in England.

What were the economic motivations for European Imperialism?

European industries needed raw materials to keep their factories busy. Industrialists sought new markets in which to sell their manufactured goods.

Explain the concepts of White Man’s Burden and Social Darwinism.

the duty of Europeans to spread their superior culture & civilization to areas of Africa & Asia .

How were these leading factors in European Imperialism?

– the theory that some societies were more successful because their cultures were superior. Other Europeans wanted to spread Christianity.

What were the results of the Berlin Conference on Africa and Europe?


It created boundaries in Africa that didn’t take into account the people living there, but it stopped the European countries from fighting over land in Africa that they had claimed.

How did western powers benefit from the construction of the Suez Canal and the Panama Canal?


They were able to travel to their colonies more quickly. This meant that they had economic benefits because they made trade faster.

Realism:

Refers back to ancient Greece and Rome, shows heroic images with people often dressed in togas or toga-like clothes

Neo-Classicism:

Based on details of daily life, may emphasis the ugly or sordid, figures are dressed in daily, casual, or work clothes, objective reality, faces do not show strong emotion.

Impressionism:

Painters trying to catch the impression that a scene makes. Use of pastels and often outdoor paintings.

Post-Impressionism:

Variations of impressionism; Artists of Post Impressionism: Georges Seurat – arranged small dots of color to define shape of objects, Vincent Van Gogh – sharp brush lines, Paul Gaugin – flat, “primitive” folkart; use of bold colors and black outlining gave art intensity


Define Command Economy and Free Market Economy.

A command economy is a system in which the government makes all the economic decisions and a free market economy is when the people/ companies decide how much and of what to produce.

Why did Command Economies fail by the end of the 20th century?

Command economies were not able to keep up with free market economies and in places like China and the USSR they were replaced.

What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?

The wealth difference between the ruling class (the czars and nobles) and the extreme poverty of the people, the power of Rasputin, the amount of death in WWI and the Czar’s refusal to get Russia out of the war.

What did Lenin promise to do for Russia that the Provisional Government did not?

Lenin promised that he would get Russia out of the war when the Provisional Government didn’t. His promise was Peace (no WWI), Land (for peasants), and Bread (food/money for everyone, equality).

How were the American Revolution and Russian Revolution similar?

They both overthrew kings, although in America it was replaced with a democracy and in Russia it was replaced by a communist dictator (Lenin).

What are the characteristics of totalitarianism?

Totalitarianism is when the government controls every aspect of people’s lives, including religion, the economy, education, and technology / the media.

Describe the dictatorship of Joseph Stalin including agricultural collectivization, the Great Purges, and the 5 Year Plans.

Under Joseph Stalin (the second dictator of the USSR) Russia lived in a totalitarian state. The Great Purge was when Stalin killed many high ranking members of the communist party and the military in the hopes of wiping out all of his competition as dictator. Collectivization is when farms are taken away from one owner and are pooled between many peasants in an effort to increase productivity. The 5 Year Plans were Stalin’s plans to industrialize Russia and have greater agricultural output.

What are the characteristics of communism in China?

Communist party controlled every aspect of people’s lives, including religion, the economy, education, and technology / the media.

Among which group in society did Mao gain his support?

Mao gained support among women and peasants. He believed this emphasis created a new form of communism more suitable to Asia. He introduced dramatic changes to traditional life.

How did the unequal distribution of wealth lead to the Russian and Chinese Revolutions?

In both the Chinese and Russian revolutions the peasant classes were much poorer than the ruling classes and were supporters of communism, which promised to redistribute land and have equality for all the people.

Identify the role Gandhi played in the Indian nationalist movement. What was the Great Salt March?

Gandhi led the movement for Indian independence and did so using nonviolence. He used boycotts and protests instead of violence. The Great Salt March was a march to the sea to make salt that was the greatest example of his use of civil disobedience.

What were the (MAIN) causes and effects of WWI?

The main causes were: Militarism (creating a big military and glorifying it), Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism. The effects were a lot of dead, the Great Depression, the rise of Fascist dictators (Hitler and Mussolini), and harsh punishments on Germany. The end of the war also meant a lot of new countries were created out of the territory of the losers, like Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Serbia.

Nationalism:

is extreme pride in one’s country or national group.

total war:

is when a country uses all of its resources for a war.

14 Points:

were Woodrow Wilson’s (the US president) plan for peace after WWI.

League of Nations:

a group created after WWI to keep another war from happening, but without a military and without the US being involved; it was unable to do so.

Treaty of Versailles:

ended WWI putting all the blame on Germany, and forcing them to pay a lot of reparations (money).

Mandate System:

was set up after WWI. Instead of allowing colonies to gain their independence, they were turned into mandates, where they were administered (controlled) by western powers

How did the role of women in the United States change during WWI? What amendment gave women the right to vote?

Women took over many jobs when the men went off to war. Because of this the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote right after the war, in 1920.

What were the causes of Global Depression?

Causes - The Great Depression was caused in party by over speculation. Investors borrowed money to invest in order to make a quick profit. Another problem was overproduction.

What were the effects of Global Depression?

Effects - The interrelationship of loans & debts between Europe & America ensured that the recession would spread worldwide quickly. The rise of Fascism

Explain how the Fascist dictators were able to seize control in Italy, Germany, Japan, and Spain.

A new political system called Fascism appeared in Europe in the disturbed conditions after WWI. The term is taken from the political party formed by Benito Mussolini in Italy, but it is used to identify similar systems such as Nazism in Germany. The common characteristic of European Fascism include – extreme nationalism, the belief that a single party should unite all classes, All powerful leaders could best represent the national will & lead the nation, & extreme militarism – use violence to defeat their political opponents & prepared to use war for national expansion.

Describe the Fascist dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. Include key events that led up to the Nazi’s seizure of power in Germany.

His power grew out of the failure of the Weimar Republic (democratic govt. set up in Germany after WWI) and the resentment of the Germans of the Treaty of Versailles

Define Appeasement and give 3 examples of this policy

Appeasement is when a country gives into the more aggressive country in hopes that the will eventually stop. Letting Italy take Ethiopia, Japan take Manchuria, and letting Germany take the Rhineland, the Sudetenland (in the Munich pact) and annexing Austria are all examples of Appeasement right before WWII.

What were the Causes of WWII?

The Great Depression, the weakness of the League of Nations, the rise of Fascist dictators that came because of the Great Depression and the punishments for WWI, and the policy of appeasement.

Why did the Japanese attack the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii? What was the significance of this attack?

They attacked Pearl Harbor to get rid of their only competition in the Pacific. Instead it led to the US entering the war

What was the significance of Operation Overlord or D-Day on June 6th, 1945?

The invasion of German-occupied France by the allies (British and American) was when the Americans entered the war on the western front, and began the fall of Germany from the west.

What was the technological innovation that brought an end to WWII?

The atomic bomb

How are the causes and effects of the following events related?

Treaty of Versailles – treaty that ended WWI harsh on Germany (war guilt & reparations)

Mandate System

- was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I

the creation of the nation of Israel

– in 1948 the U.N. partitioned Palestine into two states – Israel (Jewish homeland) & Palestine.

independence movements

- eventually leading to the push for independence by nations of former influence.

What is the United Nations and what was its most significant role?

The United Nations (UN) was created after WWII to keep a WWIII from occurring and to keep peace throughout the world.

What nation was created to rectify the Nazi atrocities in the Holocaust?

Israel

What was the Cold War & what event signifies the end of this era?

The Cold War was a period of fear when the world’s two superpowers (the United States and the Soviet Union) were on the brink of war. It was a competition between their two economic types (capitalism vs. communism) and included wars fought against each other’s allies, an arms race, and a space race. The fall of the Berlin Wall signified the end of the Cold War.

Define containment:

containment was the policy of the US during the Cold War where we wanted to keep Communism “contained” or only in, the areas it already was.

Marshall Plan - success or failure of containment?

- gave money to countries trying to recover from WWII (Success)

Berlin Airlift - success or failure of containment?

- sent supplies to west Berlin after it had been blockaded by the USSR (Success)

Bay of Pigs - success or failure of containment?

– U.S. tried to take out the communist leader, Fidel Castro (Failure)

Korean War - success or failure of containment?

– U.S. protected democratic South Korea from communist North Korea (Success)

Vietnam War - success or failure of containment?

- U.S. tried, but couldn’t, keep communist North Vietnam from taking over democratic South Vietnam (Failure)

Explain decolonization and the independence movements in Africa.

Slowly, African Nationalists start gaining influence and power through grassroots campaigns to end Colonial rule, and allow for more self-governance. However, World War II and the Cold War slowed the process of African countries gaining independence down. By the mid 1970’s all countries in Africa were independent, however most have struggled to overcome the colonial legacies.

Define Fundamentalism

A usually religious movement or point of view characterized by a return to fundamental principles, by rigid adherence to those principles, and often by intolerance of other views and opposition to secularism.

Fundamentalism

A usually religious movement or point of view characterized by a return to fundamental principles, by rigid adherence to those principles, and often by intolerance of other views and opposition to secularism.

What was the main cause of the Arab Israeli Conflict?

Both the Israelis and the Palestinians have historic claims to the land, and both groups consider it the holy land.

What’s the difference between genocide and politically motivated mass murder?

A genocide is when someone kills a specific group (racial, ethnic, religious, or other) with the intent to wipe them out/ destroy the whole group. A politically motivated mass murder is when the government kills a large number of people to keep themselves in power, but is not targeting or attempting to kill all of one group.

Explain how the atrocities in the Balkans and Darfur were genocides.

In the Balkans, the Serbs were trying to wipe out the Bosnian Muslims, and in Darfur, the Hutus were trying to kill all the Tutsis, which makes them both genocides.

Explain how the atrocities in China and the USSR were politically motivated mass murder.

The Cultural Revolution in China and the Ukrainian Famine and Great Purge in the USSR ended with a lot of death, but it was a product of the leaders trying to keep control and was a politically motivated mass murder.

Define Terrorism

The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.

describe the United States’ response to the 9/11 attack

After 9/11, we began the War on Terror, which began with overthrowing the Taliban in Afghanistan. We also enacted the Patriot Act and created the Department of Homeland Security.

Define Globalization and how it relates to technology

Globalization refers to the increasing global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity. Technology connects the world and makes nations more interdependent on each other.

Ronald Reagan

- American president who fought to end the Cold War and to halt the spread of communism

Pope John Paul II

- Polish pope who visited more countries than any other pope and helped end communism in East Europe

Lech Walesa

- helped to end communism, specifically in Poland

Mikhail Gorbachev

- last leader of the USSR. He instituted glasnost and perestroika (openness and restructuring of the government) which helped end communism in the Soviet Union. He also officially made the announcement that the USSR had collapsed.

Golda Meir

- prime minister of Israel who fought the Yom Kippur War

Indira Gandhi

- prime minister of India who was a proponent of the Green Revolution

Margret Thatcher

- a prime minister of England, known as the Iron Lady, who fought communism during the Cold War.

Mother Theresa


- Catholic nun who helped feed children and the poor in India.