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138 Cards in this Set

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Total rule by one person in a set area with no earthly restraints-- divine rights.
3 parts/characteristics of absolutism
1. standing army in times of peace
2. bureaucracy
3. money (usually a problem)
Where did absolutism begin?
Who did Queen Mother Maria de Medici hire to help organize the government for her young son?
Cardinal Richelieu
Who were the 'Fronde'?
French nobility, born wealthy by owning land.
Richelieu, after breaking the nobles' power, divided France into _______ with loyal officials to keep tabs. Who did he put into office?
1. states
2. rich merchants
What mistake did Richelieu make concerning money?
He decided to sell government offices to get money. There are around 10,000-20,000 offices. It raised the money until the selling stopped. Then, not only did the new officials have to be paid, they didn't have to pay taxes as government officials (nobles weren't taxed).
Who ended up being blamed for the financial problems in France?
The Huguenots (French Protestants)
Who was the first absolute ruler?
Louis XIII. (Louis the Thirteenth).
Who was Richelieu's replacement?
Cardinal Mazarin.
How long was Louis XIV's reign?
How old was he when he became king?
72 years.
4 years old.
What was Louis XIV's biggest fault?
He didn't die soon enough (lot of debt, especially in building the Palace of Versailles).
After Mazarin died, what did Louis XIV do?
He didn't appoint another Cardinal.
What nickname did Louis XIV take and why?
"The Sun King" -- a role he danced in a 13 hour ballet.
What was Louis XIV's biggest expenditure?
The Palace of Versailles.
What did Louis XIV do to prevent takeover from the nobles?
He made the important nobles come live in the Palace of Versailles and took away their lands.
Louis XIV's decision to banish the Huguenots' protective law and get rid of their communities probably hurt France how?
Being Calvinists, the Huguenots were very hard workers. Driving them out of France (whether intentionally or unintentionally) worked to Louis XIV's disadvantage.
Who did Louis XIV hire to help financially?
What were Colbert's ideas/accomplishments?
1. He decided France needed more commercial activity: roads, canals, and financial support to those interested in starting businesses.

2. Louisiana territory became part of France under his actions.
Despite Colbert's accomplishments, he still couldn't make up for France's expenditure. What factors worked against his efforts?
Drought and epic disease.
What did Louis XIV do to get minds off of finances?
He fought a series of four major wars for natural boundaries. (France already had 3 out of four, but he coveted the fourth).
Describe the four wars Louis XIV fought.
1 & 2: limited success.
3: Stalemate.
4: "The War of Spanish Succession" -- direct line of Spanish monarchy died out. Louis' grandson was distantly related. Obvious problems ensued. Lasted 12 years.
What settled the fourth war?
An agreement that Louis' grandson could rule Spain, but Spain & France could never be united, and the two could never be ruled by the same person.
When did Spain become absolute?
After Phillip II...
What were some good things about France when Louis XIV came to power?
1. well-organized
2. good farmland
3. 3 of 4 natural borders
What was the treaty of Utrecht?
It was the agreement made that Louis XIV's grandson -could- rule Spain, but Spain & France could never be united or ruled by the same person.
A whole new type of government which limited government by law; the monarchs were no longer completely supreme.
Who was the last royal Tudor descendant in England?
Elizabeth I
What line did James I descend from?
The Stuarts
Where did the Stuart line originate?
Why was James I hated?
1. Foreigner
2. Suspected of having Catholic leanings
3. Gay and proud of it!
4. Spent too much money.
What is the one goo or really productive thing James I did for England?
He authorized the translation (KJV) of the bible from Latin to English.
Who was James I's heir?
Charles I.
How many years did Charles I rule without Parliament?
11 years.
What did Charles I do to piss off Scotland enough for them to declare war on him?
He issued a new Catholic prayer book to them... and they were Presbyterian.
Why did Charles I finally call Parliament into session, and how long did they stay in session?
He needed taxes for the war. 20 years.
When Parliament refused to fund Charles I's army, what did he do?
He decided to create his own army, mostly of nobles, but when they weren't enough, he hired more mercenaries.
What did Parliament do when Charles I created his own army of nobles and mercenaries?
They raised the LONDON MILITIA and the lower middle class against Charles' army.
What was the name of Charles I's army, and who was their head?
The Cavaliers, and Charles I was the head.
Which top official and devout Puritan did Parliament choose to be the head of the Parliament forces against Charles I?
Oliver Cromwell
What did the Parliament forces do to look different from the Cavaliers, and what name derived from their actions?
They got bowl haircuts to look different, and they became the Roundheads.
What were the main issues of the English Civil War under Charles I?
1. Who has most power--Monarch or Parliament?
2. Is there a state church or religious freedom?
Who did Cromwell send into Parliament to drive the Scots out, and what was this action called?
Colonel Pride
Pride's Purge
After Pride's Purge, what was Charles I found guilty for?
Murder, traitor, public enemy.
Who took over when Charles I was beheaded, and what was he called?
Oliver Cromwell.
Military Dictator
What positive things did Cromwell do for England when he was in power?
1. Developed the largest navy in the world.
2. Made Jamaica a colony.
After Cromwell's son, Richard, failed to be a good king and stepped down, who did Parliament get to be King of England?
Charles II
Under what conditions was Charles II made king?
1. He wouldn't try to seek revenge.
2. Both the House of Commons and the House of Lords had to meet regularly.
3. He had to accept the Church of England, even though he was secretly Catholic.
What 2 unsettled issues were there during Charles II's reign?
1. religious freedom wasn't in place.
2. there was no set time for calling Parliament into session.
What did Charles II do, trying to be friendly with Parliament?
He created the first Cabinet (made of 5 Parliament members).
Who did Charles II complain to about money matters, and what did his friend do?
Louis XIV.
Louis XIV would pay Charles II 200,000 pounds a year if Charles tried to make England Catholic, but Charles never succeeded.
"If you weren't active in the Church of England, you couldn't vote, hold office, or go to school."
Test Act
When James II came into power, what did he do to outrage Parliament?
Appointed Catholics to all high positions.
Which 2 events caused constitutionalism in England?
1. Acts of Indulgence-- brought the 2 churches together.
2. James II's second wife had a SON (a legitimate heir).
What did Parliament do when James II's wife had a song?
They immediately offered the throne to Mary (James' daughter from first marriage.)

James and family fled England to France.

Mary and husband William signed the Bill of Rights.
What were five major points in the Bill of Rights which Mary II and William III signed?
1. Parliament was supreme over monarchy.
2. Free election and free debate.
3. Reasonable bail and trial by jury.
4. Protestants could bear arms.
5. The monarch must always be protestant.
What was so significant about the Glorious Revolution?
They changed government without war.
How did the Dutch Republic become Constitutional?
They set up a constitutional government, declaring themselves independent from Spain.

Kept local rule, but DID have a central government/legislature (States General).
Who became England's first Prime Minister?
Robert Walpole.
What was the base for absolutism in the West?
Rich middle class.
Labor class = free small farmers & growing wealthy middle class.
What was the base for absolutism in the East?
Labor class = serfs, bound to the land.

There was STRONG nobility, and mostly agriculture.
What was the difference between the West and the East (absolutism-wise)?
West: supported by rich middle class, no need for serfdom, had peasants instead.

East: less trade, so rich nobles and serfs bound.
Which family ruled Austria until WWI?
The Hapsburgs
Which Austrian monarch was the first to start expanding?
Ferdinand II
When Austrian's Charles VI ended up only having a daughter, what did he establish?

1. monarch could be loyal.
2. surrounding states would respect Austria's borders.
Which Prussian family wanted to EXPAND?
Which Prussian monarch, elected by the Church, was the first to begin building a good army, the basis for the formidable German army?
Frederick William, the GREAT ELECTOR.
Every German state had a legislature called "Estates" which were in control of what?
What class made up an Estate?
Who were the Junkers?
Prussian nobility.
What did Frederick make the Estates give him, and how?
The right to tax without permission. By inciting fear of foreigners and asking for permission to "protect his people."
Who did Frederick III want to be like?

What -did- he get?
Louis XIV.

He got the title of KING for helping the Pope... thus becoming King Frederick I.
Describe Frederick William I.
The Soldier King.
Military man. Crude, psychotic, etc., but having a brilliant mind for reform.
What group did Frederick William I assemble and with what types of people?
the "Regiment of Giants" -- VERY tall soldiers.

It was more parade and show than any battle skills.
What was Frederick William I's great achievement?
He built the greatest army in Europe.
For about how many years did Prussia fail to lose a battle?
Around 200 years.
When the Vikings ran into the Slavics on their way to the Mideast, what happened?
They established settlements because of the cold weather, and became friendly with the Slavs.


Thus, Vikings became much less fierce.
What group was most feared out of Asia?
The Mongols.
What was the problem Mongols' faced, to their demise?
They conquered and settled, but refused to learn the native language.
Who did the Mongols get to pass on orders to the people of their territories?
Princes of Moscow-- "ambassador-like" people who learned Mongolian to pass on the orders. The princes eventually overthrew the Mongols.
He first began to move the Mongols out.
Ivan I.
He continued the process of moving the Mongols out.
Ivan II.
He finished the process of moving the Mongols out and made himself Russia's leader.
Ivan III.
Ivan III was a member of which church, and what title did he take for himself?
Eastern Orthodox
Caesar--> Czar.
Rome = "1st Rome"
Constantinople = "2nd Rome"
Russia = "? ?"
"3rd Rome"
What type of government did Ivan III set up in Russia?
What was Ivan IV's nickname?
"The Terrible"
For 25 years, Ivan IV tried and failed to take which country?
When Ivan IV's beloved Anastasia died, he started the ______ of _______, marked by what?
Reign of Terror
When Ivan IV found he hadn't sufficient workers to farm, what did he do?
Seized peasants' farms and made them work as serfs.
When the Ukranians, who were very prosperous farmers, refused to turn over their lands to Ivan IV, many left and hid as guerrillas in the mountains, becoming skilled fighters. What did they become known as?
The Cossacks.
When Ivan IV's son left no heir, a time of chaos ensued (Cossacks killed many). The nobles needed a ruler, and they got one in the form of.....

His main task was...
Michael Romanov, the first Romanov ruler.

Restoring order, repelling Cossacks.
Describe Peter the Great.
Military man.
6'7" tall.
Czar for 36 years.
35 years in war.
Found army incompetent.
What did Peter the Great do to enhance his empire?
1. disguised himself as commoner and traveled to western Europe and learned the skills in each area for Russia's gain.
2. put nobility in military service for life.
3. established schools, mainly for Nobles (nobles as "officers").
4. required ALL men to be in the army, and EVERYONE started at bottom/equal footing.
5. Educated class was new.
What were the consequences of Royal Absolutism in Eastern Europe?
1. Military was more trained and important.
2. Art and music wasn't really original.
3. Versailles influenced Palace-Building.
4. Some were built to accommodate palaces, like St. Petersburg.
What was St. Petersburg called?
"The Window on the West"
Describe St. Petersburg's construction.
Built as brand new capital city. Nobles HAD to build large houses there and stay there 7 months of the year. People had to fund themselves. Built on serf/peasant labor, working for free. Many peasants died of starvation.
What were the four trends of thought featured by the Enlightenment?
1. rational
2. liberal
3. humanitarian
4. scientific
Which philosophe popularized Enlightenment ideas?
Which philosophe was the rebel kid who always smarted off to nobility? Describe some of his beliefs.

Didn't think people had sense to have a voice in government, but supported a kind monarch/ruler.

Became Royal Historian of France.

Emphasized something like karma, but only in current life.
This philosophe had a big impact on the US government. He satirized existing practices, didn't approve of royal absolutism. Studied many types of government. Decided best government needs separation of power, and strongest group should be upperclass, to keep eye on monarch. He wrote THE SPIRIT OF LAW.
When James II was replaced by Mary & William, and the Bill of Rights was drawn up... this philosophe said that if a king fails to take care of his people, the people have a RIGHT to ACT!
He was the Darling of the Enlightenment, a Swiss penniless bum. He was charming and a good speaker, mooched off of other people for years. One of the few who didn't like monarchy. He supported individual freedom and a government of general will. Wrote A SOCIAL CONTRACT.
The philosophes compiled a(n) _________. It had ___ volumes, edited by ________. It examined the whole of human knowledge, excluding religion, monarchs, etc. The government disapproved, claimed to be heresy by church, but eventually it was published in France.
Beccaria, who studied criminal justice, held 3 principles:
1. punishment should deter crime and reform the criminal.
2. punishment doesn't have to be severe.
3. it SHOULD be certain and swift.
Who were the physiocrats?
Enlightened economists.
He believed government should butt out of business. No country can do everything well. Every area should concentrate on that which it does best to generate wealth enough to buy/acquire the other stuff from other people.
Adam Smith.
The only tax should be land tax.
Total power, but kind and enlightened rulers.
Enlightened despotism.
He was a pansy-ass prince who didn't have interest in the military his father worked so hard at... but after unsuccessfully trying to run away with his friend and being forced to watch his friend executed for defying his father, the king, he became an even greater military leader than his father.
Frederick II of Prussia.
When Frederick II attacked Maria Theresa, the war was called the ____ __ ________ _____________.

When she attacked him, it was called the _______ ______ ____.
War of Austrian Succession.

Seven Years War.
How did Frederick II try to be an enlightened ruler?
1. improved schools.
2. reclaimed wasteland.
3. promoted agriculture and industry.
4. abolished torture.
5. reworked judicial system to make justice swifter.
She was a German princess married to Peter the III, who had no interest in her. She taught herself Russian and was impressed by Enlightenment ideas. Used her sexuality for political gain and got one of her lovers to kill her husband. She claimed the title of Empress.
Catherine II.
How did Catherine II implement enlightenment ideas?
1. restricted torture.
2. practiced religious toleration.
3. reorganized local government.
4. improved education.
Who was the Cossack who incited the unsuccessful serf rebellion against Catherine II?
In France, he was King Louis XV's regent, and with him it was the first time in a long time that a noble was in power. He replaced middle-class positions with nobles.
Duc de Orleans
The supreme French court; registered laws of the king, but not often called into session.
When Louis XV was told there were huge money problems, he called in a financial adviser who suggested ___________________________________. Later, parlement refused, and Louis backed down.
A 5% income tax across the board.
Who did Louis XV hire to help the financial situation?
What did Maupeou do as Chancillor?
1. ousted noble parlement of Paris and exiled them.
2. appointed a new one of upper-middle class.
When Louis XVI became king, what happened?
Well, being so weak and easily pressured as he was, he was persuaded to dismiss Maupeou, and the old parlement returned.
What unique thing did Maria Theresa do to help her son?
She had him co-rule with her for some years.
What 4 major changes did Joseph II make to Austria when he came to power?
1. gave religious and civil toleration to Protestants and Jews.
2. abolished serfdom.
3. abolished death penalty.
4. abolished flogging and branding.
What was Joseph II's biggest mistake?
He made too many big changes on an unprepared people.
Who replaced Joseph II when he died, abolishing all of Joseph's changes?
What were 2 different views of philosophes on despots?
1. Ruler w/ little control over him.
2. Some limitations (Montesquieu).
What were the causes of the Age of Revolutions?
Liberty and Equality before the law.
Describe the Articles of Confederation.
Every state was in charge of its own finances.
America's contribution to political science.
The Supreme law of the land had 3 branches...
1. constitution
2. laws
3. treaties
Causes of the French Revolution
1. incompetent monarchs
2. bankruptcy of treasury
3. growth of middle class
4. no true representative assembly
5. unequal tax system
6. no central bank/credit system
7. inequitable class structure
8. irresponsible administrative system
9. chaotic legal system
Estates were the SOCIAL classes.
Three of them:
1. clergy
2. nobles
3. everyone else (bourgeoisie, proletariats, and peasants)
When did the Revolution officially start?
When Louis XVI agreed to call the Estates General.
How was Estates General originally made up?
1. clergy = 300 delegates = 1 vote
2. nobles = 300 delegates = 1 vote
3. upper bourgeoisie = 300 delegates = 1 vote

Lower class would never win.
What 3 things did lower class demand?
1. double delegates
2. vote by head
3. meet jointly
Lists of grievances compiled, sealed, and sent to the king before elections
Who were leaders of 3rd estate?
Count Mirabeau and Abbe Sieye
When the Joint meetings were granted in estates general, "closed for repairs"... the 3rd estate was furious, so they went to an INDOOR TENNIS COURT and did 2 things:
1. changed their name to the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
2. took an oath not to adjourn until a constitution was written for France