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247 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Latin-speaking people from ______ in central Italy went on to conquer all of Italy.
Which mountains divide Rome in half, west to east?
The Apennines
The most fertile agricultural area in Italy
Po River Valley
Sea West, South and East of Rome
West- Tyrrhenian, South- Ionian, East- Adriatic
Rome was located on what river?
Tiber River
When and by whom was Rome founded?
Romulus and Remus, 753 BC.
Roman tradition holds that in the beginning, Rome was under the control of _ _____. The last two were Etruscans.
7 Kings
The Etruscans built the first roadbed of the chief street through Rome. It was called
the Sacred Way
One of the chief sources of history for early Roman Republic was _____. He used stories to show __________.
Livy, moral values and virtues.
After struggling to overthrow the Etruscans, Rome had to crush _____ states and then struggled with the _______.
Latin states, the Samnites.
Whose alphabet was used in Rome?
the Greeks
Who was Cincinnatus and what did he do?
Cincinnatus was chosen dictator of Rome to defend her from attack. He was a farmer before. He finally resigned after saving Rome and after holding office for only 15 days.
Explain the Roman Confederation
under this system, Rome allowed some peoples- Expecially the Latins- to have full Roman citizenship. The remaining were made allies. They remained free to run local affairs but were required to provide soldiers. The allies could eventually become citizens.
Who were the (2x) ceos of Rome?
consuls and praetors
Who were consuls and what did they do
2 Consuls were chosen annually to administer government and lead the Roman army into battle. They possessed imperium
Define imperium
the right to command
Define praetor
one who possessed imperium and could govern Rome when the consuls were away and could lead armies. His primary function was the execution of justice.
Roman senate/council
a select group of about three hundred men who could serve for life. They could only advise magistrates but had virtually the force of law.
Centuriate assembly
organized by class based on wealth, it was strutured in such a way that the wealthiest citizens always had a majority, They elected the chief magistrates and passed laws.
Makeup of the patrician class
families descendant from the original senators appointed during the period of kings. Great landowners. Only they could be consuls, magistrates, and senators (before the council of plebs).
T or F:
Patricians and plebians could vote
Rights gained for Plebians
council of Plebians who would eventually be allowed to pass laws for All romans.

Tribunes of the plebs were officials who protected plebians.

Intermarrige was allowed for Plebians and Patricians

Plebians could become councils
T or F:

Theoretically, after the council of Plebs all Romans were equal under the law.
Why was the First Punic War started, and who won?
Roman conquest of Sicily, Rome
What was the first Roman province?
Explain the second punic war
Rome encouraged Carthage's Spanish allies to revolt. Hannibal, the greatest of the Carthaginian generals, struck Rome. He crossed the Alps with elephants, horses, men, etc.
What was the Battle at Cannae?
Second Punic war, Carthaginan armies crushed Roman armies.
What was the Battle of Zama?
the Romans defeated Hannibal's forces at Carthage and the 2nd punic war ended.
Why did the third punic war start and what was the result?
Carthage broke a peace treaty with Rome by going to war against one of Rome's North African allies. The Romans used this to destroy Carthage. It was supported by Cato the Elder.
What general destroyed Carthage in the 3rd Punic War?
Skipio Aemilianus
T or F:
Macedonia never became a Roman province.
Large, wealthy landowners took over state-owned land and bought out small peasant owners' farms. Large estates called latifundia were developed that used slave labor.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
came to believe that underlying cause or Rome's problem was the decline of the small farmer, They bypassed the senate and had the council of plebs pass land reform bills that called for the government to reclaim land held by large landowners and distribute it to landless Romans. Senators killed both.
The general recruited volunteers who swore an oath of loyalty to the general instead of teh senate for his army. He promised them land. This created a new system of military recruitment that placed much power in the hand of individual generals.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
The senate gave him command of war in Asia minor, but when the council of Plebs tried to transfer command to Marius, a civil war broke out. Sulla won and seized Rome. He wiped out opposition and restored ower to the hands of the senate and eliminated most of the powers in popular assemblies.
When did the Punic Wars occur?
264- 146 BC
Members of First Triumverate
Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
the richest man in rome who put down a slave rebellion, He was later killed in battle.
returned from successful military command in Spain and was hailed as a hero.
Caesar before the Triumvirate
military command in Spain
The Senate voted _____ into power instead of Caesar. The result of this?
Pompey. Caesar's army defeated Pompey's and was in complete control of Rome's government.
What did Caesar do to help Rome?
-gave land to the poor
-Increased the size of the senate to 900.
-Used Egyptian calendar
Who inherited Caesar's throne?
Octavian, Caesar's heir and grandnephew, and Antony, Caesar's ally and assistant.
Who (2) was the assassination of Julius Caesar led by?
Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus
What did Octavian claim to restore in Rome?
the Republic
What title did the senate give Augustus?
Imperator, commander-in-chief
Praetorian gaurd
9000 men who guarded the person of the emperor. Created by Augustus.
How did Augustus change how provinces were governed?
He took control of some provinces and appointed deputies known as legates to govern them.
The other provinces were given to the senate with traditional governing techniques.
T or F:

Early Roman Empire and Republic was characterized by a system of social stratification
Three classes of Roman Empire
Senatorial, equestrian, and lower class
What did one of the senatorial order have to have?
1 million sesterces.
His favorite expression was "make haste slowly"
What dynasty did Augustus establish?
the Julio-Claudian dynasty
who was Augustus's successor?
Title for rulers in the Roman Empire
First citizens of the state
When did the five good emperors rule, and who were two of them? In general, what did they do?
beginning of the second century, Hadrian and Trajan. They treated the ruling class with respect and cooperated with the senate. They were tolerant, diplomatic.
What did Trajan do to help his empire?
Established a program which provided state funds to assist poor parents in educating their children
What did Hadrian do?
-built the pantheon
-retrenched to Roman empire and built a defensive wall 80 miles long across northern Britian.
Who was the last of the Five Good Emperors?
who gave Roman citizenship to every free inhabitant of the Empire?
What did internal peace in the Early Empire lead to?
increased levels of trade and industry
the finest lyric poet of Rome.
the best exemplar of the literary and intellectual interests of the senatorial elite in the late Republic and the greatest prose writer of that period
When was the Golden Age of Literature?
Age of Augustus
Distinguished Augustian poet who wrote the Aeneid
last great poem of the golden age, wrote Amores and the art of love, and was eventually exiled by Augustus
best Latin prose work of the golden age (poet), historian who wrote History of Rome
Greatest historian of the silver age. Wrote Annals and Histories
Rome's first code of law
the Twelve Tables
the law of nations
a body of laws defined as the part of law which applies to Romans and foreigners. Based on stoic principles
Oppian law
limited the amount of gold women could posses and restricted dress and use of the carriage.
dominant male in Roman families
T or F:

Greek women had more power than Roman women
Large scale slave revolts occurred here
Most famous revolt of the Italian peninsula was led by a Thracian gladiator named ______.
jews who favored cooperation with the Romans
jews who wanted Judaea free from Roman control but didn't support violence
Jewish sect that awaited a Messiah who would save Israel from oppression and usher in the kingdom of God
militant extremists who advocated the violent overthrow of Roman rule
Who crushed the Temple in Jerusalem and when?
the romans in 66 ce.
Story of Jesus
A Palestinain Jew who grew up in Galilee. He said that it was less important to adhere to letter of the law but to transform the inner person.
What did Jesus preach on the Sermon on the Mount? (ethical concepts)
brotherly love
Who ordered Jesus's crucifixion and who was he?
Pontius Pilate, a procurator
Paul of Tarsus
He believed that the message of Jesus should be preached not only to Jews but to Gentiles as well. He founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean.
some of the sayings of jesus written by Jesus' disciples, the "good news" concerning Jesus/
Edict of Milan
Issued in 313, Constantine made this officially tolerating the existence of Christianity.
Who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
How did Diocletian and Constantine restore the empire?
-strengthened and enlarged administrative bureaucracies.
-created illustres and illustrissimi.
-enlarged the army
define illustres and illustrissimi
illustres- illustrious ones
illustrissimi- the most illustrious ones

held positions in the civil and military beauracracies
Who sacked Rome and when
Visigoths, 410.
a government which is dominated by a dictator, and requires total subservience of the state.
any… acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group
one to blame when things are not going well. Usually readily identifiable by a different race, nationality, or religion.
preconceived opinion not based on reason or experience
the unjust treatment of a specific group of people
misleading information used to persuade people of a certain idea as a form of political strategy.
a systematic use of propaganda to form habits and attitudes.
anti-jewish feelings
secret police that, in 1938, organized “spontaneous” anti-Jewish demonstrations throughout Germany
Crimes against humanity
an act of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, and is the highest level of criminal offense
concentration camps
- In 1939 and 1940, the Nazis experimented with the technology of mass murder. They used gas chambers to kill groups of people and crematoria, or furnaces, to burn the bodies. Jews were taken to these death-camps, also known as concentration camps, from the ghettos.
Treaty of Versailles
removed Germany's richest territories, Germany's military was limited to a small, lightly-armed force, Germany had to pay the entire cost of the war
In power in 1929, Joseph Stalin announced that all agriculture would be collectivized. Individual farmers would be put together into huge state-run farms, and formerly independent peasant farmowners would become employees of the state with no rights to the food they produced.
young Turks
a number of opposition groups joined as the Committee of Union and Progress, also known as the Young Turks. In 1908, the military coup led by the Young Turks forced the sultan to become a constitutional monarch with limited power. When, in 1909, 20,000 Armenians were killed the Young Turks blamed the sultan for the massacre, but they also might have been joined in it. Eventually, the Young Turks declared a state of siege and suspended constitutional rights. Some Young Turks sought a purer nationalism, a “Turkism” that would replace the Ottoman Empire.
Why were the Armenians discriminated against and by whom?
The Armenians were Christians in a Muslim state, and the Armenians were discriminated by the Turks.
organized persecutions
Why were the Ukranians subject to genocide and by whom?
Ukraine was a major wheat producer and with its fertile fields, created a large source of wealth. Stalin and the Russians starved the Ukranians because they sold all of the grain to get money for his plans.
System Stalin used much like serfdom
wealthy Ukranian landowners
an unsuccessful artist who took over the Nazi Party. He was put in jail for conducting putsch. Later, Hitler ran for president and lost. Hitler was put in government as chancellor of Germany, but shortly after he became sole dictator.
secret and sudden attempt to take over government
Nazi Party
the National socialist party
Why were Jews targeted?
-Anti-semetic feelings propagated through Germany
-Jews already had control of the Soviet Union.
-Germany needed a scapegoat.
What did the Nuremberg Law do?
Stripped away all rights from the Jews. Jews were not allowed to marry non-Jews. They had no rights of citizens. The SS, an elite army of the secret police, were turned loose to persecute Jews.
"Crystal Night. Germans burned smashed and looted Jewish homes, shops, synagogues, etc. Jews were fined millions of dollars for having "caused" the damage. 20000 Jews were arrested.
The special military units which rounded up and killed large numbers of Jews.
Jew head of ghettos who were forced to pick who lived and died and had to keep control.
Where did the osrogoths and visigoths inhabit?
osrogoths- Italy
Visigoths- Spain
Who established the French kingdom?
Germanic Law
Law was personal, An injury of one person against another could lead to a blood feud. These could be savage
the ordeal
divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed. In trial, one would be tried physically. If they were innocent, they'd come out unharmed.
the amount paid for a man by the wrongdoer. Alternative to personal Germanic law.
bishop of Rome, who claimed that he was the sole leader because Jesus gave the keys of heaven to Peter, who was chief apostle and bishop of Rome.
What was the area a bishop controlled called?
A bishopric
What did St. Benedict do?
He founded a monk house and set rules that established the basic form of monastic life in the church. It divided the activities of each day.
father of the monastery
mother of nuns
one who lives apart from society to get in touch with deeper spiritual understanding
Who was Charlemagne's father and what did he do?
Pepin took the kingship of the Frankish state.
What did Charlemagne do?
-Expanded territory and created the Carolingian Empire.
-Created many sacred buildings
-sent money to the poor
-used counts as representatives in local areas.
-created missi dominici
Missi dominici
messengers of the lord king. Two men sent out to local districts to check on the counts.
Treaty of Verdun
The Carolingian Empire was divided into three sections by Charlemagne's grandsons
Who invaded in the ninth and tenth century?
the Muslims, the Magyars, and the Vikings. The Vikings were the most successful. The Magyars were crushed but converted to Christianity and created Hungary.
William of Normandy
He and his knights landed on England and defeated the anglosaxons, He became king of england and created a new england. He gave his knights fiefs and made all nobles swear an oath of loyalty to him. He established a strong, centralized monarchy and helped improve taxation.
Henry II
strengthened power of the royal courts. Created a body of common law and began to replace different law codes. strengthened the kings power.
King John
forced to sign the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
signed in 1215 by King John, known as the Great Charter which limited the King's power.
Edward I
during his reign, english parliment was developed. He invited 2 knights from every county and 2 residents from each town to meet with the Greet Council to consent new taxes.
King Phillip II Augustus
waged war against Platagenet rulers of England. Enlarged the power of the French monarchy, and created a french beauracracy by appointing new royal officials to collect royal revenues.
Philip IV the Fair
created a French parliament
Otto I (Otto the Great)
Saxon king who ruled the eastern Frankish kingdom in Germany. He intervened with Italian politics and was crowned pope for his efforts. As emperor of the Romans, the first since the time of Charlemagne, he created the new "Roman Empire".
Fredrick I/ Fredrick Barbabossa
Planned Italy as the center of a "holy empire'. His attempt to conquer northern Italy ran into severe opposition from the pope and cities in Northern Italy. They formed an alliance and defeated him.
Byzantine Missionary brothers who converted southern and eastern slavic people to Christianity.Who were they, and what else did they create?
Cyril and Methodius, the Slavonic alphabet
How was the French kingdom established?
Clovis established Frank kingdom by becoming a Catholic Christian which gained him the support of the Church.
built on the basis of the contract between the lord and his vassals.
a piece of land held from the lord by a vassal in return for military service
a set of practices that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
feudal contract
Where did the vikings come from?
what did the Vikings call themselves?
the rus
a Russian state created by Oleg.
Aristocratic women in the Middle ages
-could own property
-ran the estate when the lord was gone
-oversaw food and supplies
Pope Gregory VII
Claimed that he had been chosen by God to reform the church and tried to end Lay investiture.
Lay investiture
the practice by which secular rulers chose nominees to church offices and invested them with the symbols of their office.
King Henry IV
German king who appointed Church officials and came into conflict with Pope Gregory VII. Issued a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders.
Investiture Controversy
struggle between Henry IV and George VII to see who would determine who appointed people to religious offices.
Concordat of Worms
the agreement to the investiture controversy which said that a bishop in Germany was elected by Church officials. Then, the nominee paid homage to the king as his lord, who then invested him with the symbols of temporal office. A representative of the pope then invested the bishop with the symbols of his spiritual office.
Pope Innocent III
the Catholic Church reached its height under him. Innocent III believed strongly in papal supremacy. Used interdict
forbade priests to dispense the sacraments of the church in hope that the people, deprived of religion, would exert pressure against their ruler. It worked.
Cistercian Order
Strict order of Benedictine monks who had a simple diet, possessed a single robe, and had more time for prayer and manual labor but less time for religious services.
St. Bernard said "Arise, soldier of Christ. Fight more boldly... triumph in Glory!" What religious order's ideal was this?
The Cistercian Order's ideal
Who usually joined the Cistercian order, and why? Hint: cost less money.
Women, because they didn't have to pay a dowry for a husband
founded by St. Francis, preached repetance and aided the poor. Return to simplicity and poverty.
Dominicans... what did they become known as?
under Dominic de Guzmàn, this order was made for intellectuals who tried to end heresy. Inquisitors.
The Holy Office
A court that had been established by the church to find and try heresy.
What does "university" mean?
corporation or guild
First European University, and where?
Bologna, in Italy
Who granted a guild of students/universitas a charter?
Fredrick I Barbarossa
What did a student have to take in his or her university?
1- a liberal arts curriculum
2- then a student could study law, medicine, or theology.
3- Graduate as doctors.
queen of the sciences?
philosophical and theological system of medieval schools. Tried to reconcile religion and faith.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Wrote Summa Theologica, a collection of knowledge attempting to bring together all learnings of proceeding centuries on a certain subject. Some things could be deduced through reason, some through faith.
Romanesque churches. Shape? Roof shape? Architectural innovations? Windows?
-built in basillica shape from late roman empire.
-rectangular flat wood roofs.
-barrel vaults/cross vaults
-dark, with few windows
Gothic architecture. Innovations? Height? Windows?
-ribbed vaults, pointed arches, flying buttresses, stained glass windows
First Crusade
Byzantine emporer _______ asked _______ for help against the invading _________.
Alexius I, Pope Urban II, Seljuk Turks
Why did the crusaders go to war?
their sins would be removed if they died in battle.They wanted to save the Holy Land.
Where did Pope Urban II challenge the Christians to join in a holy war to save the Holy Land?
Council of Clermont
What was the result of the first crusade?
Pope Urban II took Jerusalem
who also benefited from the crusades?
Italian cities
What called for the Second crusade?
The fall of Latin Kingdoms
Who advocated the second crusade?
St. Bernard
What started the third crusade?
the Holy City of Jerusalem fell to the Muslims under Saladin
Who banded together in the third crusade?
Fredrick Barbarossa, Richard I, Philip II Augustus.
Why did the fourth crusade begin?
Saladin died and Pope Innocent III tried to take Jerusalem back.
What city was sacked as a result of the 4th crusade?
What were the results of the later crusades? (good vs. bad)
all were failures for the crusaders
when was the mini ice age?
at the beginning of the 14th century.
What were the results of the mini ice age?
famine and hunger becasue crops wouldn't grow
Another word for "black death"
bubonic plague
how was the black plague spread?
black rats infected with fleas who were host to the bacteria. The Genoese merchants brought it from Caffa to Sicily and there it spread.
thought the plague was God's punishment. Flogged each other with whips to beg for forgiveness.
when was the English Peasants Revolt?
What caused the english peasants' revolt?
after the black death peasants enjoyed improved conditions with greater freedom and higher wages. Landowners fought back with legislation, smaller wages, and imposing a poll tax.
poll tax
a flat charge on each adult member of the population.
Who ended the English Peasants' revolt and how?
King Richard II arrested rebels.
What kings started the hundred years war and why?
English king Henry III and Philip VI of France. Henry III held a part of France. Philip VI seized this area and King Edward III of England declared war on him. This was really an excuse for claiming the throne of France.
What did the French and English use in the hundred years war as weapons and for fighting?
English- foot soldiers
French- armed cavalry and the canon
What two places did the French beat the English that helped them win the war? When did they win?
Normandy and Aquitaine. 1453
Where did Joan of Arc help the French clear?
the Loire valley
Who was Joan of Arc captured by?
Burgundian allies
who was Joan of Arc turned to where she was tried as a heretic?
English inquisition
the Popes moved to _____ and lost power why?
Avignon, because they were bishops of Rome, not Avignon
Who brought the popes back to rome from Avignon?
Pope Gregory XI
The Great Schism started when Italians forced the cardinals to elect ______, an Italian. THey later denounced this and brought ______ in papacy, who returned to Avignon, but now there were two popes.
Pope Urban VI, Pope Clement VII
What split Christians in the great Schism?
The italian pope's followers vs the French pope's followers.
What did the church lose after the Great Schism?
power, decline in people's faiths
What did peasants do to increase Agriculture in the middle ages?
cleared forests for crops
A heavy, wheeled plow pulled by horses
persons bound to the land and required to provide labor, pay rents, and were subject to the lords jurisdiction,
What did serfs eat?
nutritious breads baked in community ovens of the lord
father of the renaissance humanism. Translated works of Virgil, Cicero.
Created the first masterpieces of the renaissance, and his style
Masaccio, realistic
What style did Leonardo da Vinci move to from realism?
to idealism
What was Raphael known for painting, and where did he paint?
Madonnas, in Vatican palace
What art forms did Michelangelo use?
paint, clay, architecture
reflection of divine beauty
what were common mediums of northern renaissance artists?
illuminated manuscripts, wooden pannel paintings
Northern renaissance school of art in _____
Jan van Eyck was one of the first to use _______
oil paint
King Louis XI
Of the Renaissance, he was known as Spider for his devious ways and strengthened the use of taille. French king.
an annual direct tax usually on land or property
Henry VII
Renaissance. Ended the War of Roses by ending armies of nobility. He won favor by not taxing too much and being thrifty.
what was the War of Roses and when did it end?
renaissance. civil war of aristocracy in england. ended in 1485
Renaissance. Isabella of Castile who married Ferdinand and unified Spain under one Christian kingdom. Sent Muslims and Jews out of her kingdom.
Renaissance. Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella, unifying Spain under one Christian kingdom.
Strong Italian States in the Renaissance
Venice, Milan, Florence
Which Italian state had an oligarchy in the Renaissance?
Who took control of Florence's oligarchy?
Cosimo de'Medici
Niccoló Machiavelli
Renaissance. Wrote the Prince, one of the most influential works on political power in the western world. He abandoned morality for the analysis of political activity
Renaissance popes before the reformation
did not meet the church’s spiritual needs. They were often too involved in worldly interests.
Julius II
Renaissance "warrior-pope". Led armies against his enemies, disgusted the religious.
Martin Luther before the reformation
Monk and professor
Religious doctrines of Protestantism (Martin Luther)
humans are not saved through their good works but through faith in the promises of God, made possible by the sacrafice of Jesus on the cross. This doctrine of salvation, or justification by grace through faith alone, became the primary doctrine of the Protestant Reformation
95 Thesis
Luther issued a stunning indictment of the abuses in the sale of indulgences. It was quickly spread throughout Germany.
Who saved Martin Luther from capture?
Elector Fredrick of Saxony
Peace of Augsburg
this ended religious warfare in Germany, as Christianity formally acknowledged that Lutheran states were to have the same legal rights as Catholic states. German rulers could determine the religion of his subjects but the subjects couldn’t choose their own religions.
John Calvin's publication
Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin's views
justification by faith alone explained how humans achieved salvation. He placed a lot of importance on the all-powerful nature of God. Calvin’s teachings also said that God had destined certain people, the elect, to be saved, and the reprobate, to be damned
Henry VIII
English king of the Renaissance who wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon, starting the Protestant reformation in England
queen of england in the renaissance who tried to return the kingdom to Catholicism. She burned more than three hundred Protestant heretics, earning her the name “bloody Mary”.
radical reformers of the Protestant Reformations. The true Christian church was a voluntary association of believers who had undergone spiritual rebirth and had then been baptized into the church. They wanted return of practices of early Christianity and considered all believers equal. All Christians were considered priests, and each church chose its own minister. The Anabaptists believed in complete separation of Church and state. They didn’t believe in killing.
Society of Jesus
What did the Jesuits believe in, and what reformation were they a part of?
absolute obedience to the papacy, a strict hierarchical order for the society. The Catholic reformation
What actions did the Jesuits take?
the use of education to achieve its goals, and a dedication to engage in “conflict for God”.
Council of Trent
Of the Catholic reformation. - a council which met at three major sessions. Their final decrees reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs. Strengthened belief in indulgences but prohibited selling them.
a prolific artist and an important figure in the spread of Baroque from Italy to other parts of Europe. Bodies in violent motion, heavily fleshed nudes, dramatic use of light and shadow, rich pigments.
Peter Paul Rubens
An artistic movement in the Western world.Sought to harmonize the classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the sixteenth century religious revival. Richly ornamented palaces meant to impress.
Three chief pillars of the Catholic Reformation
The jesuits, a reformed papacy, Council of Trent