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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Ignatius of Loyola

the Spanish knight who founded the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits


Florentine humanist, poet, and scholar who assembled a library of Greek and roman manuscripts to encourage learning


a prosperous region of cities in the present day Netherlands, France, and Belgium, where the northern Renaissance began


person who provides financial support for the arts

Elizabeth I

daughter of Henry VIII; queen for 45 years, brought compromise between Catholics and Protestants


a government run by religious leaders

Robert Boyle

explained all matter as being composed of tiny particles that behave in knowable ways; proposed laws governing gases


the artistic technique that allows an artist to portray depth and three-dimensional qualities by making distant objects smaller


artist; created the sculpture David and painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

Nicolaus Copernicus

Polish astronomer who proposed a heliocentric model of the universe

Council of Trent

appointed by the pope in 1545; over 20 years, advised about reforms to answer the Protestant challenge

Baldassare Castiglione

wrote the "Book of the Courtier" describing the manners and qualities aristocratic men and women should display

Nicolo machiavelli

wrote "The Prince" describing how to rule in an age of ruthless power politics

Johann Gutenburg

in 1455, printed a complete bible on a printing press with movable type


a technique in which artist etches a design on a metal plate using acid; the plate is then used t o make prints


the everyday spoken language of the common people


an important religious scholar; called for the translation of the Bible into the vernacular

Thomas More

wrote "Utopia", which describes and ideal and peaceful society in which people live in peace, all are educated, and crime is eliminiated

Mary Tudor

daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon; as queen she tried to restore Catholicism in England


the leading English language poet and playwright of the Renaissance


in the Roman Catholic Church, pardons for sins committed during a person's life


proposed by newton as the force that keeps planets in orbit

Martin Luther

the German monk who triggered the revolt against the Roman Catholic Church in 1517


painter; blended Christian and classical styles; famous works include "The School of Athens" and his portrayals of the Madonna


city in northern Germany where Luther drew up his 95 Theses

Charles V

the Holy Roman emperor who ordered Luther to recant his 95 Theses


assembly or legislature

John Calvin

a reformer who preached predestination and the living of a saintly life


the scientist who proved that the Earth moves around the sun; in 1633, the Inquisition forced him to recant his heliocentric views


the idea that God had predetermined who would gain salvation


Copernicus's idea that he sun and not the Earth was at the center of the universe

Leonardo Da Vinci

artist, scientist, and inventor best known for the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper" and sketches of inventions such as flying machines


the Renaissance intellectual movement that studied classical cultures to increase understanding of their own times


the Swiss city where, in 1541, John Calvin was asked to establish a Christian community


a subgroup of a major religious group


subjects such as grammar, poetry, rhetoric, and history

Thomas Crammer

first archbishop of the Church of England, wrote "The Book of Common Prayer"


an Italian city-state that produced many gifted artists, scholars, scientists, and architects


an acceptable middle ground

Rene Descartes

proposed the need to search for probable knowledge; the only assumption he could not question was doubt itself


a logical or possible explanation to a problem to be tested using the scientific method

Teresa of Avila

began an order of nuns, reformed Spanish convents and monastaries


a separate sections of a city where members of a minority group are forced to live

Tycho Brahe

Danish astronomer who collected data to prove that Copernicus was correct

Johannes Kepler

mathematician who plotted the orbits of planets and discovered they are elliptical


idealistic or visionary, usually to describe a perfect society

Albrecht Durer

applied painting techniques to engraving; spread Renaissance ideas in northern Europe

Francis Bacon

with Descartes, rejected the assumptions of Aristotle; viewed the scientific goal as improving technology, not supporting the Bible

scientific method

a step-by-step process of discovery requiring the collection of accurately measured data

Henry VIII

king of England; caused England to break away from the Catholic Church

Issac Newton

argued that there were uniform laws of nature and that all motions could be measured mathematically


to recognize someone as a saint


a branch of mathematics partially developed by Newton