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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Vasco de Gama

Portuguese explorer who led ships around the Cape of Good Hope.

John Calvin

Leader in the Reformation.

Rousseau

Wrote "The Social Contract"; believed government should be limited.

John Locke

People have natural rights that the government should protect.

Isaac Newton

Discovered the force of gravity.

Muhammad

"The Prophet"; founder of Islam.

Ibn Rushd

Put all knowledge except the Quran to the test of reason.

Ibn Khaldun

Set standards for the scientific study of history.

Akbar

Chief builder of Mughal Empire; Babur's grandson.

Leonardo

Painted the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper"; successful at a variety of subjects.

Michelangelo

Sculptor and painter known as a melancholy genius; painted the Sistine Chapel in Rome.

Erasmus

Dutch priest and humanist; helped spread humanism to a wider public.

Martin Luther

Monk who wrote the "95 Theses" protesting actions of the Church.

Henry VIII

Made the break from the Catholic Church in England; had 6 wives.

Copernicus

Polish scholar who proposed heliocentric theory.

Galileo

Assembled an astronomical telescope; put on trial during the Inquisition and labeled a heretic.

Common Law

A legal system based on custom and court rulings.

caliph

Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims.

compromise

An agreement in which each side makes concessions.

cartographer

mapmaker

caligraphy

The art of producing beautiful hand-writing.

circumnavigate

To travel completely around the world.

vernacular

Everyday language of ordinary people.

utopian

Any society that is ideal.

indulgences

Sold to lessen the amount of time a soul would have to spend in purgatory.

predestination

The idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.

Ghetto

Separate quarter of a city in which Jews were forced to live.

heliocentric

sun-centered model of the universe.

Quran

holy book of Islam

Mosque

Muslim place of worship.

jihad

Struggle in God's service.

Sharia

Body of law in Islam.

minaret

Slender tower of a mosque.

sultan

Ruler who controlled Baghdad.

Rajah

Local Hindu ruler.

janizary

Soldier in the elite force of the Ottoman army.

shah

Title of a Safavid king.

Montesquieu

Separation of powers; three branches, checks, and balances.

Natural Rights

Right belonging to a human from birth.

laissez faire

Business should operate with little or no government intervention.

baroque

Grand, ornate style that glorified historic battles or the lives of saints.

rococo

Style that was lighter, more elegant and charming than baroque.

Federal Republic

Government in which power is divided between the national and state governments.

humanism

An intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance.

patron

Financial supporter of the arts.

immunity

Resistance to disease.

privateer

Pirate who operated with government approval.

revenue

income

mutiny

revolt

inflation

Rise in prices linked to sharp increase in the amount of money available.

plantation

Large estate run by the owner often using slave labor.

monopoly

Exclusive control of a business or industry.