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54 Cards in this Set

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Women in the Reformation vs Renaissance

Renaissance: Education better than medieval, discouraged from displaying knowledge, expected to tend to husbands, married at 18 vs 27 for men; ,meaning women inherited husband's wealth

Reformation: Minister's marry = less of temptress, still subject to husbands but according to Luther and Calvin were "indispensable companions," equal in the household, educated to follow Bible (started women activism in writing about equal rights)

Women during scientific revolution:

- no universities but: noble women through husbands connections (Margaret Cavendish)

- also women in artisan crafts(creating by hand) inherited study after husband's death; particularly astronomy

3 Groups hunted during the witchhunt

70,000-100,000 to death, 80% women, fear of women empowerment through widows, midwives and healers/herbalists

Pre-industrial vs Agricultural/Industrial Rev

- worked in farm/business early to have some money when married (necessity to survive)

- Number of children limited by wealth

- With rev moved to city, worked in poor paid jobs (factories, buttons, seamtresses(sewing), millinery(women hats) )

- resorted to prostitution and as servants, viewed as a portion of men; so pay lower

Enlightenment/French Rev

- Idea that women should be educated but still house wives (Rousseau) vs role outside home (Mary Wollstonecraft)

- Parisian Women March (bread!), ultimately denied from serving office or army (not recognized in Napoleonic Code)

- influenced by expanding wealth and employment

Suffragist Movement and beyond 19th century

- differed in different places, many after work done in World War I (1919) like Germany

- France in 1945 b/c of Catholic Church, Britain movement in 19th, granted in 1928

- Stalin/Hitler wanted birthrate to increase

- After world war II returned from work, but established a second wave of feminism; better jobs, birth control, abortion, etc

Brief Time Periods: Renaissance - Napoleonic Era

Renaissance and Reformation: 1450-1600

Age of Exploration: 1450-1700

New Monarchies and Religious Wars: 1450-1648

Absolutism and Constitutional Monarchies: 1600-1715

Scientific Revolution: 1540 - 1660

Enlightenment: 1700-1789

French Revolution/Napoleon: 1789 - 1815

Council Of Trent

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI forced Pope Paul III to call council, over 18 years (1545-1563) made reforms (counter reformation), removed simony and corrupt clergy, kept indulgences and can't marry, some recessive like roman inquisition

Edict of Nantes

1598 - Issued by Henry of Navarre (IV), grants Huguenots(French Calvinists) rights that were taken away when the Peace of Beauileu was asked to be revoked by Catholics (freedom of public worship, right of assembly, admission to public office/universities, etc)

Treaty of Westphalia

Thirty Years War was caused by religious and political conflict; ended fighting in Holy Roman Empire, Edict of Restitution (no secularizing Catholic land) cancelled and Peace of Augsburg brought back, more recognition for Protestants like Calvinists, Independence of Swiss Confederacy and United Provinces of Netherlands, France dominant power

Glorious Revolution

1688 - to overthrow James II, who wanted to make England Catholic again, went to his daughter Mary's husband William of Orange, who invaded and caused James II to flee; no bloodshed

French Revolution Main Ideas

Liberty, fraternity(mutual support), equality

Third Estate tired of being limited, being taxed while other estates didn't need to be, enlightened, people starving, Louis IV needed to help for financial crisis (1789-1799)

- government of the people, laws of the people, applies equally to all

Seven Years War


Brief Time Periods: Industrial Revolution - present

Industrial Revolution: 1750- 1851

European Revolutions: 1800-1914

Imperialism and Colonialism 1800-1950

The World Wars and Russian Revolution: 1914-1945

Cold war and post-war Europe: 1945+

The French Fronde: Louis XIII, Louis XIV

- Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII contributed to secularism (worldly outlook) and absolutism (you also control religion)

- Undermined nobility through royal attendant

- French Fronde when Louis XIV was child, nobles kidnapping, civil war (1649-1652)

- Built Versailles, made power of all dependant on King, nationalism, prosperity

- bad because heavy spending, heavy taxes on poor, debt, and expectation of living in grandeur

- created full-time military that he took charge of, Mercantilism (export > import colonies), took control away from Pope of French Churches, revoked Edict of Nantes

Italian Turmoil and Machiavelli

Charles VIII of France invades Italy (1494~), Medici family falls out of power, Christian extremist Fra Savonarola took power (exucuted after), instability it Italy influenced Machiavelli's emphasis on leadership and admired Cesare Borgia (controlled central Italy)

Renaissance Literature


Petrarch if father of humanism, wrote in Italian, believed in secular/state and potential of human beings, education, society

Bocaccio was in Florence, also about human resourcefulness, love, humour, tragedy

Five Renaissance Values





Reform (for better society)

Renaissance Art

Vanishing Point - depth in paintings

Chiaroscuro - shading and lighting for emotion

Michelangelo's David in public square represented civic pride, medici power, accurate anatomy, rationale and thought


Spread of Renaissance

Spread to North by printing press, trade, french invasion, northern nobles commissioning

- Erasmianism was less secular, wrote in native tongue, less antiquity, more everyday, darker, erasmus (ideas of Protestant reformation), thomas more (dangers of wealth, pride, political power) and Shakespeare

Martin Luther (Abuses of Church)

- Salvation through Indulgences (payments)

- Simony; buying church positions

95 Theses that Salvation can be achieved through faith alone

Diet of Worms

Meeting in Worms, Luther summoned by Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, Luther refused to recant

Anabaptists vs Lutherans vs Calvinists

- Anabaptists (german states) wanted rapid change, very secluded, divided people, no baptism (purification) for infants

- Calvinists about divine predestination

- Lutherans believed in original sin, only by regreting sins do you go to heaven

Thirty Years War

- caused by religious conflict within holy roman empire (about equal Catholics and Protestants)

Bohemian Period, Danish Period, Swedish Period, Swedish-French Period (1618-1648), in 1935 Peace of Prague brought some peace but French and Spanish kept fighting German states until Treaty of Westphalia

Peace of Augsburg (1555)

- gave German princes authority over their borders, said by Charles V who gave up on religious unification in German states, said Cuius regio, eius religio, (ruler of land determined it's religion)

New Monarchies Era: France (Henry) and Spain

Ferdinand II of Argon and Isabella I of Castile marry to form Spain, absolute monarchy 1479 Spanish Inquisition to make all Spain Catholic.

- Phillip II recluse, dreamed of world empire but failed to pious didn't adapt, lost Netherlands

Henry III and Henry IV of France politiques (political state over religion), IV converts to Catholicism when ascended to throne, "Paris is worth a mass" when Spain + Church takes it

New Monarchies Era: England and France (Catherine de Medici)

- Catherine de Medici before Henry, tried to balance both powers (protestant(lead by Coligny) and catholic(Guise), St.Bartholomew's Day (1572) had 3,000 Huguenots killed, 20,000 over period

- Mary I (bloody Mary) tried to make all Catholic, did compromise through Anglican Church, worked with Parliament, beat the Invincible Spanish Armada

James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell

James I tries to be abosolute monarch, employs old taxes

Charles I prorogued Parliament after Petition of Right (no arrest without consent, no forced taxes) (provoked war with Scotland)

Civil War Cavaliers (King) vs Roundheads (1643-1646)

Oliver Cromwell won but also ended up corrupt (1649-1660)

Bill of Rights

1689 - constitutional monarchy, Monarch subject to British law, must rule by consent of Parliament, must be called every three years, British monarchs cannot be Catholic


Scientific Revolution (1473-1543)

Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies, Heliocentric model (sun in center)

- didn't cause problems until much after death when Church tried to destroy it


Scientific Revolution (1564-1642)

- Italian, said motion can be described using mathematical laws

- 1616 unable to express thoughts, then 1633 eternal house arrest; dangerous ideas

Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, Blaise Pascal

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) is Father of Empiricism/Experimentation, should look to nature( wrote Novum Organum)

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) "I think, therefore I am", have to question everything, secular philosophy (wrote Discourse on Method)

Pascal (1623-1662) with Pascal's Wager, religion separate from science

John Locke/Thomas Hobbes

- John Locke (1632-1704) tabula rasa (blank slate, learn from experience/education)

- believed in the nature of people, surrendering some freedom for safe society, property rights and majority (wrote Two Treaties of Gov)

- Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was englishmen, people as nasty, brutish, short; wrote Leviathan (people would fight each other without gov)

Scientific Revolution

- movement of "natural philosophers"

- worked with craftspeople who made new instruments

- replaced ideas of Aristotle and Ptolemy and bible with new unheard mechanics


(1642-1727) Laws of physics, made religious justification of pursuing knowledge with the idea of a rational god, seek better economic conditions

Baroque Art

- influenced by reformation/counter, new monarchies (absolutism/consitutionalism), scientific rev and rise of middle class (mercantilism)

- Patroned largely by middle class and Roman Catholic Church

- Dramatic, dynamic, emotional, more Chiaroscuro, naturalism

Bernini's David, Rembrandt the Anatomy

- St. Peter's Basilica (Mich + Bernini)

- Palace of Versailles


- most prominent painter for the Catholic Reformation

Peter the Great

- captured port of Azov from Ottoman Empire for shipbuilding

- Military control, appoints himself as general

- like Louis XIV was attacked as a child


Political Factors the Affected Netherlands Prosperity in 17th century


Agricultural Revolution

- Enclosure Movement, which privatized common land so that land owners could make profit off them with new technology (crop rotation = no fallow, seed drill)

-consequently took land from peasants, many displaced

- Textile industry mechanized, productivity increased, urbanization, consumerism

- start of manufactured goods, middle class getting richer, government not adapting, more military


Realm of disproving old concepts, inspired by Newton and Locke

- England the best with religious toleration and basic rights like court

the Coffeehouse (men only)

Diderot: ______________

Encyclopedia, critical of the Church's barriers to knowledge, man most move forward with chronicled knowledge

Voltaire main ideas

religious toleration, freedom of speech, against Church's intolerance


no one body should have absolute power


Central Doctrine of the "general will" of society


Reforming court laws and capital punishments to be more tolerant, more secular, about making society better for the greatest number of people

Rococo - 18th Century art

intimate and frivolous, influence limited because against Protestant Church values


Religion of Enlightenment; unlike Newton who thought rational God thought of God as clockmaker who can't intervene, and only after death will God judge you in the afterlife based on your actions

Enlightened Despots

Frederick II of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria, Catherine (II) of Russia (late 1700s) (no sea)

protected nobles, but needed education, religious toleration, change law to be more rationale, best one, but made largely in debt

- increased rights of peasants, no serfdom(medieval, not slaves because owned land, part of land), economic reforms (no tarrifs), but all gone after he died

- economic growth and territorial expansion but limited political reform, so seaport (lost when traded for some of Poland)

The desires of the Three Estates

First Estate: Limitless authority (even from king), keep Catholic doctrine in French society, offered to help pay taxes so long as king keeps debt

Second Estate: Keep political power through regulation of tax affairs, king keeps power, remove the feudal system, keep property and title

Third Estate: Wants everyone to pay taxes, government responsible for taxes, free market, voice in government, consistent spending (gov)

Pre-French Revolution

Peasants (80%) under heavy salt (taxes) and tithes, rise of 6% bourgeoisie, rise of table manners (classless)

- financial crisis - Jacques Necker says money not reaching king, not enough to pay exploration and versailles

- Also food prices rishing because of drought

Treaty of Tilsit (1807)

brought Russia into Continental System (ie no trade to Great Britain) after defeat of Prussia

European Coalition

Austria was willing to negotiate with Napoleon, but ended up banding with Russia and Prussia to fight at Lutzen, Bantzen and Dresden, Britain came too

One Hundred Days

Napoleon goes back to France while European Coalition tries to decide what to do, promised liberal constitution and peaceful foreign policy but Coalition didn't believe him