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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The UN troops were pushed back past the... fought against
Pusan Perimeter
Landing at this place allowed for the massive retreat by North Korean forces in the second phase of the Korean war
Name of the U.S. general in the Korean War
38th parallel
Basically the arbitrary border between North and South Korea
Nationalist Part of Vietnam
Leader of Vietnamese nationalist party
Ho Chi Minh
Site of French defeat in 1953
Dien Bien Phu
U.S. appointed rule of South Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
Response party to Ngo Diem's rule in South Vietnam
U.S. resolution to enter a war with North Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin
Massive Retalliation vs. Flexible Response
Eisenhower's threat of nuclear weaponry vs. Kennedy's threat of like minded warfare
Large scale Communist offensive by the North Vietnamese
Tet Offensive
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854- Between Perry and Japanese allow for trade between the United States and Japan
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905, Drawn up with U.S. help between Russians and Japanese
bringing another country under the control of a foreign government
isolationism in Japan
Tokugawa shogunate adopted an isolationist policy and resisted western influence
End of Isolationism in Japan
1853- Commodore Matthew Perry forces open Japanese ports with a letter from Millard Fillmore requesting trade, whaling station and coal trade

Opens the way for trade between Japan and other worlds powers
Name of the commodore who opened the Japanese ports
Commodore Matthew Perry

shocked the Japanese into compliance with 4 warships
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854 allowing for trade between the United States and Japan
By 1860 Japan had...
opened its doors to trade with major world powers
granted extraterritorial rights to foreign citizens
Tokuagawa shogunate
12th century to 1867-1868
Overthrown by Meji restoration
Emperor Mutsuhito
symbol of national pride for conservative Japanese who were angry with Tokugawa shogunate for allowing in western influence

puppet leader- advisers have real power
Resistance to western influence (after Tokugawa shogunate)
Southern daimyo attempt to resist westerns but were defeated by western technology

Decide to mix western technology with Japanese philosophy
MMeji means...
changes of meji restoration
-constitution based off Germany (limited democracy / power for people)
-elimination of samurai class
-state supported industrialization
-modern military to rival west
-western universal educational system
Evidence of Japanese modernization
Rapid but well thought out industrialization
-Photographs of Japanese in western clothing
-increase in coal production
-foreign trade skyrockets
government contractors, private companies subsidized by the government take on government projects
Reaction of samurai class to Meji reforms
Lose money and status because of the destruction of the samurai class

Unable to resist modern Japanese army
Japanese imperialism
Started from sense of national pride from Meji restoration

Warships and well trained army. Strongest Asian army.
Initial reforms of Meji Restoration- imperialism
abolish the extraterritorial rights of foreigners
assured citizens they could depend on Japan for equality
1885 Japanese treaty
Japanese and Chinese sign "hands off' treaty agreement regarding Korea
China breaks the treaty in 1889 sending in troops to aid the Korean king
Japan attacks China in retaliation
Sino-Japanese war
China v. Japan
peace agreement gives Japan its first colonies in Taiwan and Manchuria (influence)
Force all Chinese out of Korea
Russo-Japanese war
sparked by the overturned balance of power in Asia leaving Japan and Russia and rivals after the Sino-Japanese war
Countries went to war over Manchuria
-Japanese offer to recognize Russians in Manchuria in exchange for free control of Korea. Russians refuse.
Starts 1904 with Japanese surprise attack on Russia
Treaty of Portsmouth
Japanese drive out Russian forces and cripple their navy

Gave Japan control of captured territories
Forced Russians to withdraw troops from Manchuria
Japanese occupation of Korea
-1905 on Japan exercises heavy influence over Korea
-1907 Korean king gives up control of the country, unable to gain international support
-1910 Japan annexes Korea, Korean Imperial Army disbanded
-Harsh rule; took away land, privileges, education
-Effects--> creates strong nationalistic Korean movement, rest of the world busy with internal goals
Reaction to Russian defeat by Japanese
shocked the world
Japanese arrogance
Russian revolution
Difference between Chinese and Japanese reformation
Empress Dowager didn't want to weaken the country by reforming. Japan learns from China's bad example.
Mexican dictator of 1876 and methods
Porfirio diaz
methods include- rewards, imprisonment
Goal: establish stability in Mexican, modernize army and create national police force
Mexico under Diaz
economic progress due to foreign interest and U.S. concessions
Candidate for 1910 Presidency of Mexico
Francsisco Madero- wealthy Mexican landowner.
Goal: strengthen democracy

Exiled to united states. Called for armed revolution against Diaz.
Mexican Robin-hood
Pancho Villa- raised northern army against Diaz
Revolutionary Mexican southerner
Emiliano Zapata promises redistribution of land to the poor. "Land and liberty" battle cry.
Aftermath of Diaz stepping down
Overpowered by revolutionaries, chiefly Villa and Zapata.
Madero elected president- many turn against him when he doesn't give land to the poor/ allow rebels to keep the land they had won
Madero steps down 1913
Huerta, Madero's general, turns against him and seizes power but is unpopular with revolutionaries such as Zapata and Villa who support Carranza.
U.S. occupation of Vera Cruz
Mexican's unite to push out American forces
Carranza turns against former allies and seizes control of the government.
-Allows Villa to be killed by United States after he raided and killed 16 Americans
-1919 C' kills Zapata and the revolution
Mexico under Carranza
New Mexican constitution promotes education, workers rights, land reform
Carranza does not support final version. Overthrown by Obregon (not a dictator)
PRI- single party system which tolerates no oppositional parties but creates stability and peace between leaders transitions
1968 massacre during olympics. Government kills 200-2000 students.
Causes of World War One (nationalism)
-nationalism and competition for markets in Europe. Imperialism brings countries close to war. Militarism and arms races/mobilization
-nationalism in the Balkins. Russia wants to aid Slavic nationalism while Austro-Hungary wants to suppress it.
Causes of World War One (alliances)
-Alliance of Britain, Russia and France (Triple Entente aka Allies. Later joined by Japan, Italy, China)
-military alliances: Germany, Italy, Austro Hungary (Triple Alliance aka Central powers later joined by Ottomans and Bulgaria)
Causes of World One (Wilham II)
-Kaiser Wilhelm II forces Bismark to resign. Wanted to show off military. Breaks treaty with Russian and tries to form German navy, alerting British.
Spark of WW I
Serbia wants to unite Balkan Slavs (ally of Russia and enemy of AH). AH takes over Slavic states and creates tension with Serbia. Archduke Ferdinand undermines Slavic independence.
Serbian assassin shoots Archduke Ferdinand (heir to AH) with Serbian governmental aid. AH has support of Germany.
AH delivers ultimatum to Serbia and Serbia complies to everything but an inquiry into assassination
AH declares war on Serbia. Russia joins to aid Serbia and mobilizes against AH and Germany.
Germany declares war on France and Belgium.
Britain declares war on Germany in retaliation for Belgian independence.
Schlieffen plan
Germany's attempt to avoid fighting on two fronts. Assuming it will take Russia 2 months to mobilize and France a few weeks. Plan to defeat France quickly by going through nuetral Belgium
1st Total war
Countries utilize all resources to win the war- rationing and shortages
WWI affect on Technology
huge improvement in military technology
-poison gas
-railways guns

use this technology with old military fighting styles
Western Front in WWI
Germans retreat 4 days after marching into France along the Marne River.

Turns into stalemate and trench warfare
-defense alerted to attacks by artillery build-up
-defense artillery able to hinder advance
-lack of communication and transport
Baron von Richthofen
German aircraft- utilize machine guns and drop small bombs.

Dogfights between planes.
early attempt by germany at civilian bombing.
easily to shoot down
Propaganda in WWI
used to justify the war
Poison gas
not used to full capacity by German developers. Could have broken through the French lines.

Early gas masks were extremely primitive. By the end of the war both sides have full functional gas masks
Tanks in WWI
at first very ineffective. Tank Terror- Germans are terrified even though does not seem effective to Allies
Gallipoli campaign
allies attack Dardanelles to defeat Ottomans and aid Russian supplies.
Did not have effective motivation or leadership. Led by Winston Churchill. Ends in defeat and disaster for Russia.
Hindenberg's suggestino for WWI
advises increasing the war effort on the Eastern Front (Russia). Russian front is much larger and Russians are far less competent and industrialized.

-"Pick up guns from dead soldiers" strategy on Russian ends. Shortages in food and supplies.
-Russian advantage is numbers. Ruler, Tsar Nicholos II is incompetent.
Mustafa Kemal
hero for Ottomans
father of modern Turkey
Defense Leader during Gallipoli
Lawrence of Arabia
made leader of Arabs to fight guerilla warfare against the Ottomans and join with British forces and Egypt
Promise for independent states falls through
America enters the war
Germans sink Lusitana with Americans on board while blockading British. Wilson promised by Germans that they won't sink neutral ships.
Wilson runs for re-election on "He kept us out of the war" platform
Germany goes back to unrestricted submarine warfare--angering Americans
Zimmerman telegram
Germany tells Mexico if it joins the Central powers it will get lost territories from the U.S.

U.S. intercepts telegram and joins the war against the Germans
Convoy system
expensive accompanying system to prevent ships from being sunk by German submarines.
Brest Litovsk
Russia signs treaty with Germans ending the war for the Russians.

Russia loses huge amounts of territory.
Ludendorff offensives
brief two hour attacks by elite German storm troops. Germany pushes back French.
General Foch
All troops of the allies were placed under his control. Simultaneous multi-front attack on Germans. Germans unable to fight on all fronts.
German surrender Nov. 11 1918
Treaty of Versailles
32 countries represented. Wilson, Clemenceau and George represent U.S., France, and UK (major powers)

redraw map of Europe

Both too harsh (angered Germans immensely) and lenient (allowed for the rise of Hitler) on Germans. Germans lost substantial amounts of territory and "war guilt" clause requires them to pay in reparations. Also have restrictions on military
Wilson's 14 points
14 points for lasting peace.
Self-determination and League of Nations
Other powers are more concerned with national security
League of Nations
Part of Wilson's plan for lasting peace. Failed because it was weakened in interest of national security. Also, United States never joined because of domestic arguments.
Affects of Versailles treaty
many countries created out of AH empire
United States Isolationism
Germany loses territory
Ottoman empire is destroyed leaving only Turkey
Bitterness of German people
Other countries like China feel cheated
Russian revolution (original autocracy)
Alexander III harsh ruler and resistant to change. Nicholas II followed in his footsteps.
Industrialization during Russian revolution
Rapid Industrialization at the end of the 19th century but still lagged behind the other world power.

Trans-Siberian railroad

Leads to low wages, child labor, poor life quality.
Russian Revolution-- Maxist leaders (name the two parties and explain their differences)
Lead by Lenin
Believe that proletariat would overthrow Russian government
Menshviks want a broad base for revolution
Bolsheviks want small, organized base
Bloody Sunday
Jan 22, 1905. Workers march on Winter Palace asking for better working conditions, personal freedoms and legislature. Troops open fire and kill hundreds.

Duma- created but dissolved after 10 years.
Russia in WWI
unprepared to fight the war. Reveals the weakness of the csar and military.
Rampant mutiny among soldiers.
No supplies or food.
Nicholas II in WWI
Moved to the front lines leaving his wife Alexandra in charge of the government. She is heavily influenced by Rasputin because he can alleviate her son's hemophilia.
Ruins Csar's credibility. Killed 1916
March revolution
1917- Workers march to the palace demanding bread and the end of the autocracy- joined by the soldier who were supposed to be controlling them.

Nicholas steps down and is executed a year later with his family
established provisional government created by Duma. Keeps the war going which angered Russian people.
Lenin returns to Russia
after being exiled, Lenin returns to lead the revolution. Gains power with the Bolsheviks in St. Petersburg.

Gain popularity promising "Peace, land and bread"
Bolshevik Red Guards against the Provisional government
Nov. 1917 Bolshevik Red guards (factory workers) storm and arrest the Provisional government of Russia.

Instigate "Bread, land and peace" slogan. Form Brest-Litovsk for piece giving 1/3 of Russian land away
Russian Civil war
1918-1921 Red Army led by Trotsky supported by Lenin vs. White army (everyone else)

Whites do well initially and have wide support internationally. Reds have support in Moscow and nationalism
war communism
confiscate everything to win the war
political commissar
secret police, spied on army, were representatives from Lenin's government in the army
New Economic Policy after Russian revolution
small scale capitalism to help Russia rebuild.
Establishment of dictatorship in Russia
Marxist-Leninism Communist party. Power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky.

Stalin wins out in the end and exiles Trotsky despite Lenin's desire to have Trotsky in power.
Interwar years
financially weak governments in Europe. Many parties leads to instability
Weimar Republic
Germany democratic republic after Versailles treaty.
-Germans blames Weimar government, not war-time leaders for weakness.
-Dawes plan provides loans to Germany and lowers inflation
-Germany admitted to League of Nations after promising to never attack France
Economic Collapse
Financial capital moves to NYC in 1910 (immigration helps)
Germany unable to pay 33$ billion in reparations leading France to march into Germany
Overproduction in factories and agriculture leads to lower wages, slow economy and low employment rate
Margin buying
People buy stock on borrowed money- no way to pay back loans.
Stock market crash
September 1929 investors start selling because of un-naturally high prices
October 1929- Full stock market crash as people panic and sell stocks
Great Depression
Unemployment as industrial production, prices and wages. Business fail, farmers can't pay mortgages.
Collapse of American market sent shock waves throughout the rest of the world
Great Depression affect on the rest of the world
American bankers demand loan repayment from Europeans and withdraw money
Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill- place tariffs on all imported products. Many countries impose tariffs and world trade slows to 1/3 of its former value.

Britain experiences slow but steady recovery
France- less dependent on trade. High prices but also raised wages..
Socialist government build recovery programs.
America- Roosevelt responds with quick action and fireside chats. (Really WWII that takes U.S. out of the depression)
Totalitarianism and Fascism ideology
Glorifies war, anti-communist, state more important than individual, national expansion, anti-democratic, very nationalistic government. No inherent economic program.
Italy's Rise of Totalitarianism and Fascism
Rise of Mussolini- disappointed in Italy over Versailles Treaty. 1921- Fascist party takes 35 seats and Mussolini marches on Rome. Mussolini invited by king to form government.
Mussolini's Italy- suppressions, no local government, censorship, controlled education
1935- Mussolini declares war on Ethiopia
1939- invade Albania
Beginnings of WWII
Germany breaks Versailles treaty but European countries ignore it

Concerns- communism, war effort, legitimate grievances of Germany, isolationist policy
Hitler's Aggression at WWII
Revives conscription in 1933
Invade Rhineland- France wont fight without British backing
Annexes Austria, Occupies Czecchoslovakia
France and Britain ally with Poland
Nazi- Soviet Non-Aggression pact
Plan to split Poland with Russia. Focus on the West.
Sept. 1939- invade Poland (Germany)