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15 Cards in this Set

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1. Describe what is meant by informed consent

Participants knowing the purpose and content of the study or research

Content and purpose

1. Why is informed consent an issue?

It affects the validity of a study.

Demand characteristics.

1. How can the issue of informed consent be related to Milgram(1963?)

The participants received no informed consent, they didn't know of the purpose of the study.

Why participants didn't give informed consent

2. Describe what is meant by 'deception'

Participant misleading or withholding some aspects of the study from the participants


2. Why is deception an issue?

It's unethical and immoral to lie to people

What's wrong with lying to people?

2. Asch (1955) deceived his participants, how and why?

Claimed they were taking part in a visual experiment and in order to avoid demand characteristics

Why was it considered necessary to deceive the participants?

3. What is the issue relating to right to withdraw?

Participants knowing that they can withdraw themselves and their data at any point during the study

Right to withdraw should be emphasised

3. Why is right to withdraw an issue?

Because participants often feel as though they can't withdraw from the research.

This occurs when the right to withdraw is not emphasised.

3. What happened in Milgram (1963) in relation to the right to withdraw?

Participants felt stressed because they could not leave, 3 had full blown seizures

Psychological harm

4. What does protection from harm mean?

The participants should not come across any psychological or physical harm during the research.

Participant's mental state/frame of mind should remain the same

4. Why is protection from harm an issue?

The researcher cannot anticipate when participants will come to harm.


4. How did the participants from Gibson and Walk experience harm?

The babies were crying when they could not reach their mothers.


5. What's confidentiality and what's privacy?

Confidentiality: keeping participant's personal information secure and private

Privacy: respecting their personal space

Personal information should not be published

Research should take place in public spaces

5. Why is privacy an issue?

It's hard to distinguish between what is private and what is public


5. What did Middlemist, Knowles and Matter(1976) do?

Carried out research in public toilets

Hard to say whether place was public or private.