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43 Cards in this Set

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What's often the overarching approach to habitat management?

Managing vegetation

What are 11 different approaches to wildlife management?

- Do nothing


- Fire


- Fertilizers


- Vegetation removal


- Seeding and planting


- Water impoundments


- Added features


- Herbicides


- Creating edges


- Removing animals


- Adding species

How is single-species management like agriculture?

It tends to focus on production and harvesting; assumes we know everything there is to know about how to manage that species

What are the 5 types of species interactions?

- Competition


- Mutualism (symbiosis)


- Commensalism (facilitation)


- Predation


- Parasitism

True or false: niches and habitat are the same thing

FALSE; habitat is where a species lives, niche is the environmental factors that influence a species, NOT where it lives

What 2 people independently developed the idea of niche?

Joseph Grinnell and Charles Elton

Who defined niche as an n-dimensional hypervolume?

Hutchinson

True or false: the real niche can't be larger than the fundamental niche

True; it's usually smaller, can be same size

Greater overlap leads to:

increased competition and extinction

Lesser overlap leads to:

decreased competition and coexistence

What are the 2 factors that contribute to coexistence?

- Environmental heterogeneity: different types of food or space allows for niche segregation


- Temporal segregation: same location can be used at different times of the day or week, etc.

Who coined the term 'ecosystem'

Arthur Tamsely

How much energy is transferred from each trophic level to the next?

~ 10%

What are 9 reasons for bias in a survey?

- Could confuse one species for another


- Miss some animals/some can hide


- Inappropriate field method, e.g. wrong time of day/year


- Might miss certain ages, colors, genders because they are less "out in the open"


- Pour sampling strategy, e.g. surveyor goes to place he knows animals are/he likes the place



- Effort and speed of sampling


- Weather conditions


- Double counting


- Observer's skills

What direction does bias tend systematically toward in wildlife sciences?

Toward undercounting

Before conducting management, what should you understand?

Habitat

Sampling units should _______ and should not ______.

Touch; overlap

True or false: vegetation is essentially the same as habitat

False; while it plays a key role and provides 3 basic components necessary for animals, food, water and cover, it alone is not habitat; often used as a surrogate though

Sinks often consist of what type of habitat?

Marginal (or low quality)

How do you manage?

- Identify what constitutes habitat for a species


- Surveys/census and monitoring so you know what the species population looks like


- Know species distribution


- Understand interspecific and intraspecific interactions (competition, symbiosis, etc.)


- Alter vegetation is often one way


- Decide on a management strategy: single-species, adaptive management, ecosystem management


- Choose specific management strategies (11 types)


- Make a goal/plan


- Re-evaluate to see if it's working; more surveys, monitoring

What did Leopold term the concept of creating edges?

Law of interspersion

Edges are sometimes called what?

Ecotones

Too many edges leads to what?

Fragmentation

What types of species tend to be managed with single-species management?

Invasive and endangered species

What are alternatives to single-species management?

- Adaptive Management (aka adaptive resource management or ARM)


- Ecosystem Management

Who developed adaptive management?

Carl Walters (fisheries manager) & C.S. (Buzz) Holling (ecosystem ecologist)

Adaptive management assumes that we __________, and thus every management activity should be treated as though it is ___________.

Do not completely understand any system and never will; an experiment

What are the 5 main steps of Adaptive Management?

1) Design management activities with goals and objectives over a specified time frame


2) Management should be a real world experiment, so need control plots/areas to compare against no management


3) Carry out management activity


4) Evaluate evidence at specific points in time, thereby learning from the experimental outcome


5) Re-craft (or adapt) management guidelines based upon knowledge gained

What are problems with adaptive management?

- It's rarely successful today


- Hard to commit to a time frame or scale of research

What was the name of the USDA Forest Service's internal analysis that led to ecosystem management?

"New Perspectives"

What 3 things does EM steward for?

1) Commodities (trees, WL)


2) Amenities (lake access, hiking trails)


3) Biological diversity (species, habitats)

What are problems with EM?

- Essentially have to manage simultaneously for different goals


- Inconsistencies in management goals

What's the main advantage of EM?

It's inclusive nature, places biodiversity maintenance on equal footing with commodities and amenties

What are 5 steps to creating successful EM?

1) Need to manage for more than just handful of species; whole species assemblages, communities


2) Need to understand and incorporate ecosystem processes (hydrology, decomposition), services (pollination, water purification), and goods (food, wood, clean water)


3) Need to consider different temporal and spatial scales


4) Need to consider bottom-up and top-down processes, how different species regulate and are regulated by these processes


5) Need to understand and incorporate disturbance

In conserving wildlife, we need to consider if a population is effective in what 2 ways?

Genetically (loses genetic variance at same rate as real pop.) and demographically (even sex ratio and stable age distribution)

What is typically the time frame for MVP?

1000 years

What are two common estimates for Minimum Viable Populations (MVPs) and why these numbers?

- 50 and 500


- 500 based on point where a population is genetically healthy, meaning drift and mutation are balanced


- 50 supposed to be point where loss of genetic variance is 1% per generation, which causes no genetic problems

Where did the 50 number in MVP come from?

Animal breeding research

What do all Population Viability Analyses (PVAs) use in their models?

Variation or stochasticity to account for changes in real-life environmental and demographic factors

How far can you project a PVA extinction risk beyond the length of the time series you have data for?

10 - 20%

What does PVA rely on that we rarely have precise and reliable estimates of, which contributes to a major weakness in PVA?

Population growth rates

What are indicator species?

Species whose well-being (or lack thereof) indicates the well-being of many other species

What are umbrella species?

Species that if protected, many other species get protected as a result