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179 Cards in this Set

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general term for the progressive loss of cognitive and intellectual functions and is caused by a variety of disorders, the most common of which is structural brain disease. If the affected person is younger than sixty-five, it is called presenile; if the affected individual is older than sixty-five, it is called senile
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible disease involving the death of nerve cells and deposition of plaques of amyloid (a protein) in the brain
The term for discriminating against someone based on his or her age


the nation's largest health insurance program, providing coverage for nearly 40 million individuals who are either age sixty-five and older or who are qualifying younger but medically disabled individuals. Part A- helps pay for care in a hospital or skilled nursing facility, home health care, and hospice care, and they will not need to pay additional costs to participate in the program. Additional coverage may be obtained by qualified individuals through a subscription (i.e., at additional cost) to Part B- a supplemental medical insurance to help pay for doctors' fees, outpatient hospital care, and other medical services


federal subsidy program for state programs that finance health care for qualified (usually low-income) individuals


The patterns of life changes that occur in members of all species as they grow older


The study of individual and collective aging processes

Biological age

refers to the relative age or condition of the person's organs and body systems. There are 70-year-old runners who have the cardiovascular system of a 40-year-old, and 40-year-olds who have less energy than their parents do. Arthritis and other chronic conditions can accelerate the aging process

Psychological age

Refers to a person's adaptive capacities, such as coping abilities and intelligence, and to the person's awareness of his or her individual capabilities, self-efficacy, and general ability to adapt to situations. Research documents that people who maintain a positive attitude and stay mentally active are more likely to age well and be happy. Although chronic illness may render people physically handicapped, they may possess tremendous psychological reserves and remain alert and fully capable of making decisions.

Social age

refers to a person's habits and roles relative to society's expectations. People in a particular life stage usually share similar tastes in music, television shows, and politics.

Legal age

probably the most common definition of age in the United States. Based on chronological years, legal age is used as a factor in determining voting rights, driving privileges, drinking age, eligibility for Social Security payments, and a host of other rights and obligations.

Functional age

refers to the ways—heart rate, hearing, etc.—in which people compare to others of a similar age. It is difficult to separate functional aging from other types of aging, particularly chronological and biological aging


People aged 65 to 74.


People aged 75 to 84.


People aged 85 and older.


A degenerative bone disorder characterized by increasingly porous bones.


a progressive breakdown of joint cartilage that becomes more common with age and is the leading cause of disability in the United States

Urinary Incontinence

The inability to control urination


Clouding of the lens that interrupts the focusing of light on the retina, which results in blurred vision or eventual blindness. This condition is correctable with surgery.


Elevation of pressure within the eyeball, which leads to hardening of the eyeball, impaired vision, and possible blindness.

Macular degeneration

Disease that breaks down the macula, the light-sensitive part of the retina responsible for sharp, direct vision.


Age-related loss of muscle mass


The presence of a number of diseases at the same time.

Respite care

The care provided by substitute caregivers to relieve the principal caregiver from his or her continuous responsibility


The process of decline in body functions, resulting in the death of an organism


The permanent ending of all vital functions.

Brain death
The irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain stem.
Rational suicide
The decision to kill oneself rather than endure constant pain and slow decay.
A concept of care for terminally ill patients designed to maximize quality of life.
Not having made a will.
Holographic will
A will written in the testator's own handwriting and unwitnessed
A person who leaves a will or testament at death


A disease-causing agent.

Endogenous microorganisms
live in peaceful coexistence with their human hosts most of the time. Harmless for people in good health and whose immune systems are functioning properly; but, in sick people or those with weakened immune systems can cause serious health problems.

Exogenous microorganisms

organisms that do not normally inhabit the body. When they do, however, they are apt to produce an infection and/or illness


Strong enough to overcome host resistance and cause disease
Multifactorial disease
Disease caused by interactions of several factors.

Sickle cell disease

Genetic disease commonly found among African Americans; results in organ damage and premature death.

Immunological competence
Ability of the immune system to defend the body from pathogens.
A form of food-poisoning caused by toxins produced by a resistant food borne bacteriam that is extremely virulent.
Transmission of a pathogen from one part of the body to another.
Interspecies transmission
Transmission of disease from humans to animals or from animals to humans.
single-celled organisms that may cause disease. Three major types: cocci, bacilli, and spirilla
Poisonous substances produced by certain microorganisms that cause various diseases.
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
potentially life threatening bacterial infection that is most common in menstruating women who use tampons.
An infection of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Disease of the lungs characterized by chronic cough, chest pain, chills, high fever, and fluid accumulation; may be caused by bacteria, viruses, chemicals, or other substances.
Tuberculosis (TB)
A disease caused by bacterial infiltration of the respiratory system.
Incubation period
The time between exposure to a disease and the appearance of symptoms.
A protein substance produced by the body that aids the immune system by protecting healthy cells.
Describing a disease that is always present to some degree
A common viral disease of the respiratory tract.
A virus characterized by fatigue, sore throat, chills, fever, enlarged lymph nodes and spleen. Not highly contagious; is treated with bed rest, good nutrition.
A viral disease that produces symptoms including an itchy rash and a high fever.
Rubella (German measles)
A milder form of measles that causes a rash and mild fever in children and may cause damage to a fetus or a newborn baby.
A virally caused disease in which the liver becomes inflamed, which produces symptoms such as fever, headache, and jaundice.
Parasitic worms
The largest of the pathogens, most of which are more a nuisance than a threat.
Prionsunconventional virus.
A self-replicating protein-based agent that systematically destroys brain cells.
Organic substances that cause bodily changes and destruction of microorganisms
Substance capable of triggering an immune response
Referred pain
Pain that is present at one point but whose source is elsewhere
Inoculation with killed or weakened pathogens or similar, less dangerous antigens in order to prevent or lessen the effects of some disease.
Acquired active immunity
Immunity developed during life in response to disease, vaccination, or exposure.
Natural active immunity
Immunity passed to a fetus by its mother
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Infectious diseases transmitted via some form of intimate, usually sexual, contact.
Bacterially caused STI of the urogenital tract; most common STI in the United States.
Serious inflammation of the eye caused by any number of pathogens or irritants; can be caused by STIs such as chlamydia.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Term used to describe various infections of the female reproductive tract.
Second most common STD in the United States; if untreated, may cause sterility.
One of the most widespread STDs; characterized by distinct phases and potentially serious results.
Sore often found at the site of syphilis infection
Genital herpes
STI caused by the herpes simplex virus
Pubic lice (crabs)
Parasites that can inhabit various body areas, especially the genitals
Genital warts
Warts that appear in the genital area or the anus; caused by the human papillomaviruses.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
A small group of viruses that cause genital warts
Yeast like fungal disease often transmitted sexually.
Set of symptoms characterized by vaginal itching, swelling, and burning.
Protozoan infection characterized by foamy, yellowish discharge and unpleasant odor
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Extremely virulent sexually transmitted disease that renders the immune system inoperative.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The slow-acting virus that causes AIDS.
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay)
Blood test that detects presence of antibodies to HIV virus.
Western blot
A test more accurate than the ELISA to confirm presence of HIV antibodies.
Chronic breathlessness.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs)
A collection of chronic lung diseases including asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
A llergy
Hypersensitive reaction to a specific antigen or allergen in the environment in which the body produces excessive antibodies to that antigen or allergen.
Chemical substances that dilate blood vessels, increase mucous secretions, and produce other symptoms of allergies.
Hay fever
A chronic respiratory disorder that is triggered by pollen
A chronic respiratory disease characterized by attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing spasms.
A respiratory disease in which the alveoli become distended or ruptured and are no longer functional.
Tiny air sacs of the lungs where all gas exchange must occur
An inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes.
Sodium salt.
Used to preserve, flavor, and stabilize other ingredients when food is being processed; also occurs in smaller amounts in unprocessed food. Plays an essential role in the regulation of fluids and blood pressure
priority category for nutrition monitoring. Individuals whose diets are deficient in this will experience chronic fatigue, sensitivity to cold, edginess, depression, sleeplessness, susceptibility to colds and infections, and functional impairments in work performance, behavior, and intellectual development. This deficiency occurs most frequently in infants, adolescent females, and females during childbearing years
any substance that has mind-altering properties or in other ways interacts with and modifies the structure and function of the body.
Drug misuse
includes the unintentional or inappropriate use of prescribed or nonprescribed medicine that results in the impaired physical, mental, emotional, or social well-being of the user. The use of a drug for a purpose for which it was not intended
Drug abuse
generally refers to chronic, excessive use of a drug. May also refer to a person's intent. ex.If a person drinks to excess for the purpose of getting drunk
Route of Administration Drugs
can be taken orally in the form of pills, capsules, or liquids. Injected intravenously (directly into the bloodstream through a vein), intramuscularly (into a muscle), subcutaneously (under the skin), inhaled, or administered topically(external application of the substance to the skin or mucous membranes)
Drugs are carried to body parts through the bloodstream
the amount of a drug that is administered. Determines the effect of the substance on the body. The larger the amount taken, the greater the probability of several different effects
Threshold dose
the minimum amount required to produce a therapeutic effect
Maximum dose
the dose in which maximum effect is obtained
Effective dose
the dose needed to produce a desired effect
Lethal dose
the amount of drug that will produce death
Therapeutic index
the ratio between the effective dose and the lethal dose. Obtained by dividing the amount of a lethal dose by the amount required for an effective dose. The higher the index, the lower the chance of a given dosage being lethal
the difference in effective doses between drugs that are used for the same purpose. ex, substance A may require twice the dosage to achieve the same effect as substance B
Time response
the time required for the substance to produce an effect after the body receives it. As a general rule, the more quickly an effect appears, the shorter its effectiveness.
the combined action of the drugs is greater than the sum of the effects of any one of the drugs taken alone
increase the effect of another drug
blocks or interferes with the function of another drug when used in combination with it, or it may inhibit a normal biological compound, such as a hormone.
effect If one expects a substance will help a problem or produce a particular effect, then the probability of that effect actually occurring increases. The effect may occur even when the substance administered is only an inert substance.
Placebos substances
that produce an apparent cure or perceived health improvement based on the expectations of the user
When some drugs are used frequently, larger dosages are required to maintain the effect
Disposition tolerance
the rate at which the body disposes of a drug. Certain drugs tend to increase the rate of action of enzymes in the liver and, consequently, the deactivating of the drug
tolerance to one substance may lead to tolerance of other drugs that are pharmacologically similar
Pharmacodynamic tolerance
occurs when the nervous tissue or other target tissues adapt to the substance so that the effect of the same concentration of a chemical decreases
Reverse tolerance
users will have the same response to a lower dose of a drug that they had with initial higher doses
Physical dependence
tolerance to a substance that requires increasing amounts of a chemical to maintain normal body functioning
Psychological dependence
a pattern of compulsive drug use characterized by a continued craving for a drug and the need to use the drug for effects other than pain relief. If the person stops taking a drug after a period of time, the person might experience anxiety as a withdrawal symptom.
Over-the-Counter Drugs
medicine that you can buy without a prescription. somewhat effective in relieving the symptoms of the mild illnesses and disorders for which they were developed, as long as they are used according to directions.
Drugs that slow down, inhibit, or depress the nervous system
produce relaxation
reduce anxiety and act as muscle relaxants. Classified as major and minor. Major- such as Thorazine, are used to treat psychosis. Minor- such as Valium and Librium, are prescribed for stress and anxiety.
promote sleep
create a loss of sensation
colorless, flammable liquid formed by the fermentation of fruits, juices, or cereal grains
a number that is twice the alcohol content
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A child born with this condition may suffer permanent impairment. Characteristics of the condition include low birth weight, smaller head circumference, abnormal formation of the nose, small fingernails, smaller stature, poor joint movement, ear abnormalities, and mental retardation
when a person is unable to choose whether he or she will drink and is unable to stop drinking
Barbiturates depressants.
Generally known as downers. Often taken as a way of escaping from the problems of daily living.
produced for the most part from opium and its derivatives. act on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. They are excellent painkillers, but they can be highly addictive. Opium, morphine, codeine, heroin
drugs that speed up the nervous system. Increase heart rate, blood pressure, and amount of circulating blood sugar. Constrict the blood vessels and dilate bronchial tubes and the pupils of the eyes
most common stimulant. Contained in coffee, tea, cola drinks, and chocolate. Absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and reaches a peak blood level in about 30-60 minutes. Increases mental alertness and provides a feeling of energy. High doses can overstimulate and cause nervousness and increased heart rate. Can also cause sleeplessness, excitement, and irritability. In some cases, high doses can induce convulsions.
Amphetamines uppers.
Have limited legitimate and useful medical applications, but because of their wide availability, they are often abused. Ritalin, Sudafed, Adderall.
Methamphetamine (Meth)
potent and commonly abused form of amphetamine. White, odorless, and bitter-tasting powder. Also called speed. An illegal, highly addictive drug that is cheaper and has longer-lasting effects than cocaine does.
Cocaine Known as snow or coke.
Most often found in the form of a white powder, which is usually sniffed or snorted up the nostrils or smoked. Taken to produce a feeling of intense euphoria and boundless energy. As this fades, depression follows, along with the strong desire for another dose
A process used for purifying or refining cocaine. Produces a more potent form of cocaine that has an accelerated and intense high. The drug is heated to a high temperature and mixed with other substances, some highly volatile, resulting in explosion on occasion
Crack or rock
A form of cocaine. Gets its name from the sound made by the crystals when heated or from their rocklike appearance
can be sniffed in the form of snuff, chewed (placed between the gum and lips), or smoked
The primary drug in tobacco. Stimulant. Causes elevation of blood pressure, faster heart rate, constriction of blood vessels, and lower skin temperature.
term chemicals in cigarette smoke known collectively as. Identified as carcinogens, or cancer-causing agents
Sidestream smoke smoke that comes from a burning cigarette
smoke that comes from a burning cigarette
Secondhand smoke
exhaled from the smoker. This smoke has much higher concentrations of some irritating and hazardous substances(ex. carbon monoxide) than mainstream smoke does.
Mainstream smoke
Smoke that is drawn through tobacco while inhaling
third most popular recreational drug in the United States. A prepared mixture of the crushed leaves, flowers, small branches, stems, and seed of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. Acts a sedative in low doses and a hallucinogen at higher doses. It increases heart rate and appetite, decreases short term memory, and distorts time
substances that are inhaled to produce altered states. Classified as volatile solvents and aerosols.
Ingesting inhalants through the mouth
Designer drugs
substances produced synthetically by underground chemists and sold under the false assumption that they are some other drug. Compounds are altered to give the appearance of the original drug, and, to some extent, the effects, but the drugs contain only legal substances. Often called look-alikes
Club drugs
refers to a wide variety of drugs often used at all-night dance parties ("raves"), nightclubs, and concerts. Can impair senses, memory, judgment, and coordination. Some common effects include loss of muscle and motor control, blurred vision, and seizures. Most are odorless and tasteless. Some are made in a powder or liquid form that makes the drug easier to slip into a drink without a person's knowledge.
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy)
stimulants that increase the heart rate and blood pressure and can lead to heart or kidney failure. Club drug
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
depressant that can cause drowsiness, unconsciousness, or breathing problems. This and another drug, rohypnol, can cause a kind of amnesia; users may not remember what they said or did while under the effects of the drug. These drugs are sedatives and are often referred to as date rape drugs because victims become unconscious or immobilized.
substances that occur naturally or are produced synthetically and that distort the user's perception of reality. Cause sensory illusions that make it difficult to distinguish fact from fantasy.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
known as acid. most widely known hallucinogen. First synthesized in 1938. Has no commonly used therapeutic applications. Even a tiny amount is enough to cause hallucinations, which manifest themselves in intensified colors, individualized sound perceptions, and bizarre visions that may be pleasant or extremely frightening. In mentally unstable individuals, can produce psychotic reactions. There is also a danger of so-called flashbacks in which an individual will suddenly have hallucinations weeks after having last ingested the drug
a kind of cactus that grows in Mexico and the American Southwest that hallucinogens are derived from
Phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP)
Hallucinogen known as angel dust. Originally synthesized as an animal tranquilizer. Relatively easy chemical to manufacture illegally. Usually mixed with tobacco or marijuana and ingested by smoking. Produces perceptual distortions, feelings of depersonalization, and changes in body image. Apathy, sweating, and auditory hallucinations may also result. High doses produce a stupor and overdose coma that can last for several weeks. This period can be followed by weeks of a confused mental state
Drug education
used to help students realize that using drugs is unnecessary and self-destructive.
Dose response relationship
effect of a substance on the body
drugs are psychoactive, differ from state to state with regard to laws governing their possession, and manufactured illegally. Drugs whose use, possession, cultivation, manufacture, and/or sale are against the law because they generally are recognized as harmful.
Mental illnesses
disorders that disrupt thinking, feeling, moods, and behaviors, and cause a varying degree of impaired functioning in daily life. They are believed to be caused by life events in some cases and by actual biochemical and/or brain dysfunction in others
Major depressive disorder
Severe depression that entails chronic mood disorder, physical effects such as sleep disturbance and exhaustion, and mental effects such as the inability to concentrate.
Chronic mood disorder
Experience of persistent sadness, despair, and hopelessness.
Mental health
the ability to perceive reality as it is, to respond to its challenges, and to develop rational strategies for living
Emotional health
the ability to deal constructively with reality, regardless of whether the actual situation is good or bad. A component of mental health
Self-actualized person according to Maslow, has these qualities:
1. A sense of realism—the ability to deal with the world as it is and not demand that it be otherwise.2. A sense of acceptance—the ability to accept themselves and others.3. A sense of autonomy—the ability to direct themselves, acting independently of their environments. They are not afraid to be themselves. They are inner-directed people who find guidance from within their own values and feelings.4. A sense of creativity—a sense of appreciation for what goes on around them. They are open to new experiences and do not fear the unknown.5. A capacity for intimacy—the ability to be open to the pleasure of intimate physical contacts and the risks/satisfaction of being close to others in a caring, sensitive way.
a combination of self-confidence and self-respect—the feeling that one is capable of coping with life's challenges and is worthy of happiness. How people perceive themselves. People with this, have confidence in themselves, have the ability to solve problems rather than just worry about them, have the ability to confront or eliminate the things that frighten them, have the ability to take reasonable risks, and are able to nurture themselves
Learning disability (LD)
a neurological disorder that affects a child's ability to receive, process, store, and respond to information. Not a single disease but rather a group of disorders. Do not include mental retardation, autism, behavioral disorders, or laziness
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
one of the most common psychiatric disorders that appear in childhood. Children who have the disorder cannot stay focused on a task or activity, demonstrate impulsive behavior, and experience difficulty with finishing a task. Indicated by three pattern behaviors: may be consistently inattentive, may be hyperactive, and may be impulsive. Three recognized subtypes; Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type: does not show significant inattention; Predominantly inattentive type: does not show significant hyperactive and impulsive behaviors; and Combined type: displays inattentive and hyperactive and/or impulsive symptoms
Defense Mechanism
any behavior a person uses to avoid confronting a situation or problem.Includes; Compensation- making up for weakness in one area by emphasizing strengths in another area. Daydreaming- escaping from frustrations, boredom, or unpleasant situations through fantasyDisplacement- transferring feelings concerning one situation or person to another object, situation, or personIdealization- holding someone or something in such high esteem that it becomes perfect or godlike in the eyes of the childIdentification- taking on the quality of someone who is admiredProjection-shifting the responsibility of one's behavior onto someone elseRationalization-providing plausible reasons for behavior that are not the real reasonsRegression- childish, inappropriate behavior by an adult or a return to former, less mature behavior when under stressRepression- attempting to bury or repress unpleasant or upsetting thoughts Sublimation- turning unacceptable thought or actions into socially acceptable behaviors
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
characterized by impulses or images that are unwanted. Not simple worries or preoccupations, cause significant distress and anxiety and interfere with daily routine, relationships, social functioning, and academic performance
Panic Disorder
unexpected and repeated periods of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied by racing heartbeat and shortness of breath. May last from a few minutes to hours. Occur without warning. Symptoms include intense fearfulness, racing or pounding of the heart, dizziness/lightheadedness, trembling or shaking, sense of unreality, and fear of dying, losing control, or going crazy
characterized by loss of interest and feelings of extreme or overwhelming sorrow, sadness, and debility. A symptom of underlying conflict, tension, or anxiety and may be exhibited in varying degrees for varying lengths of time. Possible factors include heredity, environment, background and personality, biochemical factors, and physical illnessIndicators of childhood depression Lack of interest- daydreams, withdrawn, poor schoolwork, disruptive Change in appetite- picks at food, gives away food, increase in appetiteChanges in sleep pattern- falls asleep in class, listless, tardy, poor attention in classLoss of energy- tired or restless behaviorBlaming self inappropriately- self-critical, cries quickly, upset by surprises or changesNegative feelings of self-worth- critical of others, socially withdrawn, doesn't stand up for herself/himselfFeelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worry- sad, unhappy, feels defeated, withdrawn, acts frightened, poor peer relationshipsMorbid thoughts- talks or writes about death, overreacts to someone's deathAggressive or negative behavior-picks on others, talks back, easily frustratedIncreased agitation- cannot sit still, short attention span, makes noise, talks under breathIncreased psychosomatic complaints- frequently complains of headaches, stomachaches, or vague physical symptomsDecreased academic performance- drop in grades, poor concentration, messy work area, poor test performancePoor attention and concentration- cannot stay on task, frequently interrupts, disruptive behavior, appears not to listen
Latchkey child
any child who is regularly left without direct adult supervision before or after school
the nonspecific response of the body to an unanticipated or stimulating event
Eustress stress
resulting from a pleasant event. This type of stress comes from events, such as getting something new or being selected as a class officer. Although anxiety is produced, this type of stress helps us be more effective in physical, social, and psychological functioning
Distress stress
generated from a negative or unpleasant event. If prolonged can have a negative or debilitative effect on health. If unchecked interferes with physiological and psychological functioning
Any event or circumstance that upsets the body's physiological balance
The primary hormone responsible for physiological stress responses such as increased heart rate
physiological balance
General Adaptation Syndrome three-stage process;
automatic response by the body when an individual perceives a stressor.Alarm phase- the brain interprets an event or situation as a stressor and immediately prepares the body to deal with it. Sometimes this initial response is called the fight-or-flight syndrome because the body literally reacts as if it is either going to stand and fight or run away. The emotional response causes physical reactions such as muscle tenseness, increased heart rate, dry mouth, or sweaty palms.Resistance- the perceived stressor is dealt with through increased strength and sensory capacity. Only after meeting the demands of the stressful event can the body return to normal.Exhaustion- the body must restore itself and rest or serious health problems are potentially possible. Adverse effects of mismanaged or long-term stress include heart problems, stomach problems, high blood pressure, and/or achy muscles and joints.
serve to diminish pain