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97 Cards in this Set

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test scores cause inferences about knowledge, skills, other attributes about the test taker. Validity controls what it appropriate about those inferences. But fairness is controlled by the appropriateness of inferences upon different groups of test takers. A fair tests is one that is valid for different groups-- w/o it, the test would not be a valid measurement. Fairness/validity go hand in hand. (ex. you wouldn't give a high school student a physician's exam).
Constructs and Variant
Construct- all of the KSAs (attributes of a test taker) that are supposed to be measured in a test. Variance- a label for differences among test scores. The variances increases with a wider range of test scores. In an ideal test, the variance would be caused by construct-relevant differences in the KSAs of the test takers. However, it is contaminated by other variances the test includes. (ex. a math test that contains advanced wording may hinder the taker's ability to answer the math problems, or mask an individual who actually lacks the KSA). Therefore, it will lead to wrong inferences about the test takers and diminish validity. Fairness will be diminished as well because certain groups will be at a greater disadvantage.
3 sources of construct-irrelevant variance
Cognitive sources- when knowledge/skill not related to test are required to answer item correctly. (ex. including metric system when testing multiplication).
Affective variance-- if language/images cause strong emotions that interfere with the ability to respond to an item correctly. (ex. offensive content affecting concentration/creates distraction/emotion instead of logic).
Physical sources of construct-irrelevant variance-- usually for disabled, blind, deaf, etc.
Ellwood Cubberley
applied industrial management theory to school leadership. Designed administrative system led by professional class of superintendents and principals, creating hierarchy. known for "science" of school management. Wanted state power as foundation of democratic education.
Bernard Bailyn
Wrote Education in the forming of American Society.
Latin Grammar Schools
Usually found in New England. Usually sponsored by churches for poor families
Secondary schools or academies
Broader than Latin Grammar schools. Were open to all children. Often controlled by local shareholders and parents.
Common school movement
(1830-1860) Immigration and growing Catholic population had Protestant reformers concerned. Used public schools as a means of teaching values and morals. Used state authorities to centralize power in schools, as a means of opposing immigrant parents/values. Mostly Whig party. Opposed by Jacksonian Democrats and Catholics. Led by Horace Mann. Used state taxes to support schools/train teachers.MADE SCHOOLS FREE IN EVERY STATE, made schools non-secular, but NOT non-religious (Protestant). Religious aspect struck down by USSC in 1963
Lloyd P. Jorgensen
believed the most fundamental assumption of common school movement was that public school would be an "agent of moral and social redemption" and make schools non-secular. He noted that Protestants made it their mission to exclude Catholic schools.
Traditions of American Public Schooling
Family is primarily responsible for child's education. Pluralism- options for schools. Public school. Cooperation between public/private schools.
Dr. Montessori
First woman physician in Italy. Her work reinforced humanistic ideals, supported handicapped/mentally challenged children, and applied the idea that any child can be taught. Montessori argued that the educator’s job is to serve the child; determining what each one needs to make the greatest progress.
recognized as the founder of "oral education of the deaf; the field of otolaryngology; the use of behavior modification with severely impaired children; and special education for the mentally and physically handicapped."
Horace Mann
Father of American Education. Established equal opportunity for education, training institutes for teachers, increased school time to 6 months/year, greater salaries for teachers/books/construction. Led Common School Movement.
Theodore Sizer
Pointed out that the age of the academy extended from the Revolution to the Civil War.
Henry Bernard
reported more than six thousand academies in 1850, spread across the land, in every state and territory (Theodore Sizer believes this number is even larger).
Under what circumstances are you required to make accommodations?
When a student has an IEP or 504 plan.
What is the most important home and school collaboration key?
Parent-teacher conferences.
What is the relationship of an IEP and a 504 plan to testing accommodations?
An IEP and 504 plan clearly designate what kinds of accommodations are required for the student.
Bernard Bailyn
Said morality to appeal to education profession. Stated professional educators used religion to educate and teach morals.
inductive reasoning
Bottom-up approach. Any time someone draws conclusions from evidence, inductive reasoning is being used. moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. EX: Today, I left for work at eight o’clock and I arrived on time. Therefore, every day that I leave the house at eight o’clock, I will arrive to work on time.
Deductive reasoning
when a researcher works from the more general information to the more specific. Sometimes this is called the “top-down” approach because the researcher starts at the top with a very broad spectrum of information and they work their way down to a specific conclusion. Start with general idea, use hypothesis and evidence to confirm an idea.
Selected response
In selected response items, students choose a response provided by the teacher or test developer, rather than construct one in their own words or by their own actions. Selected response items do not require that students recall information, but only that they recognize the correct answer. Tests with these items are called objective because the results are not influenced by scorers’ judgments or interpretations and so are often machine scored. Eliminating potential errors in scoring increases the reliability of tests but teachers who only use objective tests are liable to reduce the validity of their assessment because objective tests are not appropriate for all learning goals.
constructed response
non-multiple choice question, such as fill in the blank or essay. Tests deeper knowledge of a subject because the answer is non-recognizable, such as being listed in a multiple choice question. Subject to validity or "correctness" due to opinions, therefore non-objective.
objective assessment
Has single or multiple specific answers, such as multiple choice, select one, multiple response, true or false. Easy to administer and grade, eliminates opinion or errors due to spelling. Can grade high amounts of questions in short amount of time.
subjective assessment
a form of questioning which may have more than one current answer (or more than one way of expressing the answer). Extended-response answers, essays, fill-in-the blank. Requires more in-depth grading but can test for more in-depth knowledge of a subject, rather than supplying the test-taker with a visible correct answer.
Bloom's taxomony
classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1965 by committee headed by Benjamin Bloom. "taxonomy" and "classification" are synonymous. Bloom's Taxonomy is a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. Revised version goes as follows (from bottom up): Remembering/Understanding/Applying/Analysing/Evaluating/Creating.
formative assessment
to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching. Helps identify strengths/weaknesses of students, target areas, and areas in need of improvement. (concept map, writing about main ideas, turning in work early for feedback).
summative assessment
evaluate student learning at the END of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. Often high stakes assessments and have high point value. (Midterm exam, final project, a paper)
formal testing
usually standardized method of measuring how much a student has learned or improved during an instructional period. Have usually been used on other students and can be used to measure individual student progress vs. average student progress. Usually unit tests, exams, or standardized state exams
informal testing
can be used within lessons, such as quizzes, games, projects. Doesn't necessarily have a standardized method of grading, can be used to measure student progression rather than student achievement .
intristic motivation
involves engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding-- for one's own sake rather than a reward. Personal satisfaction. Reason to act comes from inside the individual.
Extrinsic motivation
perform a behavior/engage in activity in order to gain a reward or avoid punishment. Ex. studying for good grades, cleaning room to avoid punishment. Reason to act comes from outside the individual.
Eric Erikson
believed personality develops in series of stages. Believes in impact of social experiences across entire lifespan. Developed idea of Ego Identity- conscious sense of self that develops through social interaction, which constantly changes.
Eric Erikson's theories continued. Stages of development
States that people strive to become competent in areas of life through conflicts that serve as turning points-- ego strength/ego quality (or they develop inadequacy).
Stage one: Trust vs. Mistrust

The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. Based upon quality of caregivers.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. (picking food/toys)

Initiative vs. Guilt

During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions. (success = leadership, failure = self doubt.)

Industry vs. Inferiority

This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11.

Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. (or not depending on adult interaction).

Identity vs. Confusion

During adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self.

Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. (or confused for opposite)

Intimacy vs. Isolation

This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships.

Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will form relationships that are committed and secure. (but depended upon previous successful steps, no self confidence makes for bad relationships)

Generativity vs. Stagnation

During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family.

Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
Integrity vs. Despair

This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life.

Those who are unsuccessful during this stage will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.

Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction.
attachment theory
Attachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners. The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infant's needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world. Strong early attachments make for better self esteem, motivation, and social relationships later. Developed by John Bowlby
attachment styles
secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious-resistant, and disorganized. Characterized by trust.
characterizes learning as a process of actively constructing knowledge. Formed by using new information in combination with old information, usually through social interactions. Either individual or social.
Individual constructivism
Individual occurs through cognitive process of their own experiences rather than others' ideas.
Social constructivism
when individuals construct knowledge through an interaction between the knowledge they bring to a situation and social or cultural exchanges within that content.
Moral development
Developed by Piaget, claimed that logic and morality develop through constructive stages. Lawerence Kohlberg determined that moral reasoning/justice effects a person's development over a lifetime. 3 Stages: Preconventional moral reasoning- prevalent in children, based on reward and punishment for actions. conventional moral reasoning- late childhood/early adolescence, based on rules/conventions within society. postconventional moral reasoning- sees rules/conventions of society as relative and subjective, rather than authoritative.
social learning theory
proposed by Albert Bandura. believed reinforcement couldn't account for all types of learning. He added that the social element adds new information and behaviors by watching other people.
criterion-referenced tests
also known as domain-referenced tests, competency tests, basic skills tests, mastery tests. Each test-takers' score is compared to a pre-defined set of criteria or standard. Goal is to determine whether or not the candidate has the demonstrated mastery of a certain skill or set of skills.
norm-referenced tests
compare examinee's performance to that of other examinees. The goal is to rank the set of test takers so that decisions about their opportunity for success can be made.
Behaviorism theories
founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. States that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning-- which occurs through interaction with the environment. Our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behavior.
classical conditioning
a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Uses patterns of repeated stimulus and neutral stimulus to evoke an eventual response without the natural stimulus.
Operant Conditioning
(instrumental conditioning) a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Makes associations between a behavior and consequence.
Major thinkers of behaviorism
Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike, Watson, Hull
Humanistic Psychology
The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from this natural tendency. Focused on growth, self-actualization, creativity, individuality. Maslow and Rogers considered big thinkers here.
Originated by Sigmund Freud. focused on understanding the childhood experiences and unconscious motivations that drive behavior. Mind is driven by libido/conflicts/fixations for failure. Stages throughout childhood: Oral (feeding), anal (controlling bladder/bowels), phallic (discover differences between males/females, Oedipus/Electra Complex), Latent period (6-puberty), Genital stage (puberty-death, strong sexual interests, interests in others' welfare).
Identity achievement
When a person has explored a variety of options, identity crisis or identity moratorium in order to reach achievement. Unlikely to be hit by a child or teenager due to uncertainty about themselves (identity diffusion), those who have prematurely adopted an "identity", or those searching for a sense of self (identity moratorium). Both studied by James Marcia and Eric Erikson.
Identity Moratorium
a process of finding oneself. Searching for one's occupational, religious, ethnic, or other form of identity. Exploring many options. It is often confusing and called an "identity crisis" but is normal for finding a true sense of self (identity achievement). Usually during tween/teen years, but can occur later, such as in political beliefs.
Identity diffusion
one step in finding a sense of self. It refers to a period when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one. No commitment to a way of thinking and no concern about the lack thereof. Usually in children and tweens. identified by James Marcia.
identity foreclosure
Step in finding oneself. Occurs when people think they know who they are, but have not even explored other options as of yet. It seems like identity achievement, but is false identity. The person has yet to go through an identity crisis (moratorium). Usually it is beliefs adopted from parents, friends, or close relatives. Usually tweens.
constructivist approach to learning
student-centered learning. Teacher becomes the guide on the side. Helps students to discover their own meaning instead of lecturing and controlling every classroom aspect. Social nature of learning. Mixed-ability learning groups.
Zone of Proximal development
Developed by Vygotsky. The distance between actual development level by individual problem solving and level of potential development with adult guidance or collaboration with more capable peers. It is the range of ability with assistance, but not independently
cognitive apprenticeship
Cognitive apprenticeship is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice.

Constructivist approaches to human learning have led to the development of a theory of cognitive apprenticeship.[1][2] This theory holds that masters of a skill often fail to take into account the implicit processes involved in carrying out complex skills when they are teaching novices. To combat these tendencies, cognitive apprenticeships “…are designed, among other things, to bring these tacit processes into the open, where students can observe, enact, and practice them with help from the teacher…”.[1]
Albert Bandura's modeling
theory of modeling, which posits that in order for modeling to be successful, the learner must be attentive, must have access to and retain the information presented, must be motivated to learn, and must be able to accurately reproduce the desired skill.
First to enter puberty around end of elementary school years.
Factors for obesity for school-aged children.
genes, activity level, metabolic rate, environment (television watching, advertisements for fatty foods), parental eating styles.
Average changes in middle school children
Large motor advances- the ability to run faster/jump farther. More dexterity in hands. Girls more flexibility, boys more strength. Grow about 2-3 inches and gain about 8 pounds per year. Most changes in growth happen in legs, NOT the trunk.
Learning disability
in children who have difficulty mastering a subject, are of normal intelligence, and do not suffer from other conditions that could explain the learning difficulty.
Symptoms and causes of ADHD
Over-activity, inattention, impulsivity. Causes of ADHD are heredity and environmental influences such as a stressful family life.
Mental retardation
substantially below-average intelligence and problems adapting to an environment that emerges before the age of 18; organic mental retardation is traced to specific biological or physical problems.
Adolescent growth
Significant growth spurt, girls gain 20 pounds, boys gain 25. Girls begin about 2 years before boys. Head, hands, and feet grow first, then limbs, and trunk and shoulders last. Muscles/bones become more dense.
Sexual changes in adolescents
Direct changes in primary sex organs and secondary systems (breasts and facial hair). Girls gain breasts, then growth spurt, pubes, then period. Boys gain growth in male goods, pubes, growth spurt, and ability to ejaculate. Controlled by pituitary gland and adrenal glands. Start of puberty affected by both nature and nurture. The rate of puberty has a large psychological impact on adolescents.
Psychological impact of puberty on girls vs. boys
Early puberty for boys creates high self esteem, self confidence, and popularity.

Early puberty for girls creates low self esteem, negative popularity issues, depression, behavior problems in their late maturing years and age-inappropriate behavior.
Distinct periods of characterization of parent-professional relationships
1-- antagonistic/adversarial. 2- working partnerships. 3- parent empowerment and family-centered relationships.
The effect of the passage of IDEA on parent involvement
changed the status of parents from passive recipients of services to active participants/allies with professionals. The family is the focal point of professional's attention instead of just the parents because the family is the primary decision maker (family systems approach of family characteristics, interactions, functions, and life cycle (Turnbull)).
Why is cultural differences important in maintain parent-teacher relationships?
A teacher's best intentions can be misinterpreted if they don't consider a family's background, values, or cultural system. There are also religious, linguistic, child-rearing medical practices and traditions that have major influences in family life. (For instance, where Anglo-Americans embrace independence, Hispanics embrace strong family ties). However, a teacher must be careful not to stereotype.
What is intelligence?
a theoretical construct whose existence can only be inferred on the basis of a person's performance on certain types of cognitive tests that only represent a sample of the person's intellectual skills and abilities.
symptoms of mental retardation/intellectual disability
difficulty focusing attention, maintaining it, and selectively attending it to relevant stimuli. Memory deficits. Apprehension to try/learn new things due to previous failures. Difficulty generalizing information. Speech disorders, hypernasal speech, limited vocabulary, and language development difficulties, the lower the IQ, the greater the difficulty. Poor interpersonal skills and socially inappropriate/immature behavior.
External locus of control
where a person is likely to believe that consequences or outcomes of their behavior are the result of circumstances/events that are beyond their own control, rather than their efforts. Often leads to learned helplessess-- the belief that no matter the effort, failure is inevitable. Prevalent among children with mental retardation.
loss of confidence in one's own abilities/solutions. Over-reliance on others for cues/guidance. Leads to a lack of motivation and increased dependence.
Symptoms of learning disabilities
hyperactivity, perceptual-motor impairments, emotional lability, coordination problems, attention disorders, impulsiveness, memory/thinking disorders, academic difficulties, language deficits, equivocal neurological signs, psychological process deficits and information-processing problems. lack of cognitive strategies for efficient learning. oral language/reading/writing difficulties, quantitative disorders, deficits in social skills. tension movements/Lateral head movements, lip biting, crying, distracting the teacher during reading. word recognition errors, comprehension and recall errors in reading, ignoring punctuation.
the functional use of language and nonverbal language clues in social situations. Often comes difficult to children with learning disabilities.
the ability to think about one's own thinking, evaluate and monitor one's own performance. It is skills typically consisting of several key components-- 1) recognition of task requirements, strategies, and resources needed for performance. 2) Implementation of appropriate processes. 3) Monitoring, evaluating, and adjusting one's performance to ensure successful task completion.
laws for establishing children with disabilities into placement programs
Evaluation only if pre-referral strategies are ineffective. IDEA requires that the tests be administered by trained individuals, tests be reliable, valid, and appropriate for the purpose, tests are not racially/culturally discriminating, be administered in the student's native language/preferred communication method, no single measure be used as the basis for eligibility.
characteristics of ADHD
Seeming not to listen. Blurting out answers before the question is finished. Difficulty waiting for turns. Failing to finish tasks. Difficulty remaining quiet during tasks. Interrupting others. Lack of organization. Losing things. Careless mistakes. Restlessness. Behavior inhibition. Difficulty making/keeping friends, agression, antisocial behaviors, depression, anxiety.
Behavior inhibition
primary characteristics of a person with ADHD. Lacks the ability to withhold a planned response, interrupt a response that has already been initiated. And protect an ongoing activity from competing or distracting stimuli.
positive behavioral support
schoolwide approach designed to prevent problem behaviors before they occur, ad when they do occur, to intervene early to prevent them from escalating further-- Proactivity instead of reactivity.
Four behaviors common for the definition of emotional or behavioral disorders
the frequency/rate at which the behavior occurs. The intensity of the behavior. duration. age-appropriateness of the behavior.
atypical behavior
behaviors that are not typical at any age. Tourette's uncontrollable motor movements and vocalizations such as barking profanity, or socially inappropriate comments aren't typical at any age.
Individuals Educational Improvement Act
Emotional Disturbance characteristics
Over a long period of time that adversely affects a child's educational performance:
An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
• An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
• Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
• A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
• A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
• characterized by behavioral or emotional responses in school programs so different from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms that the responses adversely affect educational performance, including academic, social, vocational, and personal skills;
• more than a temporary, expected response to stressful events in the environment;
• consistently exhibited in two different settings, at least one of which is school-related; and
• unresponsive to direct intervention applied in general education, or the condition of the child
Does not include the socially maladjusted.
Socially maladjusted
[Students who are socially maladjusted] are those whose social, not emotional, behaviors inhibit meaningful normative growth and development. Specifically, they disregard or defy authority, refuse to meet minimal standards of conduct required in regular schools relating to society's normative expectations…. They are chronic social offenders.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Distinctive facial features, including small eyes, an exceptionally thin upper lip, a short, upturned nose, and a smooth skin surface between the nose and upper lip
Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers
Slow physical growth before and after birth
Vision difficulties or hearing problems
Small head circumference and brain size (microcephaly)
Poor coordination
Mental retardation and delayed development
Learning disorders
Abnormal behavior, such as a short attention span, hyperactivity, poor impulse control, extreme nervousness and anxiety
Heart defects
Woodcock Reading Exam
a diagnostic battery of five individually administered tests to give precise measurements of reading achievement for students in k-12. Used for general school use, teacher training, clinical use, and general research purposes. It is norm-referenced (compares a student to other students).
Student/parental educational rights
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
Parents/eligible students can view education records. School DO NOT have to provide a copy of the records unless there are transportation issues that prevent the parents from reviewing the records.

Parents can request educational records if they believe the record is inaccurate. The parents have the right to a formal hearing if the school will not amend the record. If the info is not amended post-hearing, the parent can give formal statement on the record.

Schools may disclose, without consent, "directory" information such as a student's name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, honors and awards, and dates of attendance. However, schools must tell parents and eligible students about directory information and allow parents and eligible students a reasonable amount of time to request that the school not disclose
Tactual;kinesthetic thinkers
usually strongest in Pre K-2. Use feelings, texture, pressure, temperature, movement, shape, and intensity. Use their 5 senses to learn and learn by experience. Frequent changes of activity are essential.
Auditory learners
Begins in grades 3-5 and lasts through adolescence. Rhythm, volume, tone, pitch. Learn by listening and recalling information by hearing it. Reviewing information is helpful by talking it out.
Visual learners
middle school and beyond. size color, brightness, distance, and location are important. Learn by graphic representation and symbolic abstractions. By taking notes and reading them back. Visualize concepts in their heads. Visual learners usually have the highest grades in high school
at risk students
when they experience a significant mismatch between their circumstances and needs, and the capacity or willingness of the school to accept, accommodate, and respond to them in a manner that supports and enables their maximum social, emotional, and intellectual growth and development. As the degree of mismatch increases, so does the likelihood that they will fail.
What is the difference between at-risk behavior and an at-risk learner?
At-risk behavior is an action the student makes that puts him at a greater risk for academic failure and failure in life, like substance abuse or truancy. An at-risk learner is a student who is affected by circumstances beyond his control, which place him at risk for failure such as poverty, prejudice, or child abuse.
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods?
Quantitative research methods rely primarily on measurable data that include variables and can be reported using statistical significance. Qualitative research methods rely on interviews, open-ended surveys and field notes that include multiple perspectives on phenomena of interest and are reported as a narrative.
What is a primary source?
A primary source is an original document.
ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records
CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art
RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings
What is a secondary source?
A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Some types of seconday sources include:

PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias
What is an IFSP
Individual family service plan. It guides intervention services for children with disabilities and their families and contains information about which services are needed to aid a child's development. The IFSP is tailored to the concerns, priorities, and resources of each family. It usually addresses social skills, functional skills, communication or behavior modification.