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43 Cards in this Set

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brought together different strings of scientific studies to lobby for the preservation of pure and superior race and elimination of inferior race argued that only the "fit should be encouraged to reproduce and that birth control was necessary to prevent the "unfit" from unlimited reproduction

Public vs. Private Sphere

created gendered individuals with different characteristics and expectations for men and women.

Two spheres defined

Private sphere: Women's place

Public sphere: Men's place

men inhabit and rule both spheres


the recognition of many strands that make up identity

Essentialism vs. Social Construction

-essentialist theory on gender suggests that biological sex differences create the behavioral differences in men and women

-social constructionist theories on gender assert the differences in men's and women's behaviors are cultural and vary among societies

First wave of Feminism

the early feminist movement in the mid 19th century to early 20th century

-women's rights and suffrage activities- the fight for the right to vote

Second wave of Feminism

emerged in the late 1950's and early 1970s

-it addressed women's admission to formerly all men institutions, especially in the areas of higher education, business and politics

Third wave of Feminism

originated in the 1990's

-focus on issues of sexuality and identity

Identity Politics

involves claiming one's identity as a member of an oppressed or marginalized group as a political point of departure, involves celebration of a group's uniqueness as well as analysis of its particular oppression

Double Burden

work and child care


an increase in connectedness of countries to one another economically, politically and socially


a part of Mexico that has harsh labor laws including mistreatment of workers, sexual discrimination, when women employees became pregnant they were too costly so had to resign, those who resisted were bullied, harassed or moved to night shifts


someone outside their nationality--> outside the border of their nation of origin

Push factor

a flaw or distress that drives persons away from the place of origin

Pull Factor

is something concerning the country to which a person migrates


be defined as people who have been dispersed from their "countries of origin" but maintain the links with the past through preserving their traditions intact and seeking eventually to return to their homeland


society/government lead by male authority

Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs)

was mandated by the international financial institutions in the 1980's and 1990's to repair the dying economies of the "Third World" countries

Sex vs. Gender

Sex: whether you are male or female, what your born as

Gender: expectations created with being male or female

Mexico City Policy/Global Gag Rule

this is a policy that banned US family planning assistance to foreign NGOs who use their own funds to provide or promote abortion related services in their own countries

Birth control vs. Population control

one is more forced and one is more of a choice. Women lost a lot of their rights in order to reduce fast growing world population (forced abortion, forced sterilization)


Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

-an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the U.N. General Assembly


-civilized vs. uncivilized

-colonialists had the right to conquer the resources of the rest of the world,

-to civilize and Christianize the rest of the world

State vs. Nation

Nationalism created opportunities for independence and resistance to colonization

state was patriarchal, through legislations concerning marriage and sexuality and the policies of the welfare state, the subordinate status of women is maintained by the power of state


political freedom is a central concept and political though and one of the most important features of democratic societies


intense or irrational dislike of people from other countries


intense or irrrational dislike of people who are homosexual


the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own


focused or centered around men

Ideological Hegemony

the majority of the population accepted what was happening in society as 'common sense' or as 'the only way of running society' in regards to running society based on social class

Informed Consent

permission granted in the knowledge of the possible consequences

Export Processing Zones (EPZs)

areas within developing countries that offer incentives and a barrier free environment to promote economic growth by attracting foreign investment for export-oriented production

Economic Neoliberalism

An approach to economics and social studies in which control of economic factors is shifted from the public sector to the private sector

Nongovernmental Organization (NGOs)

is any non profit voluntary citizens' group which is organized on al coal, national or international level

Transnational Feminism

intersections among nationhood, race, gender, sexuality and economic exploitation on a world wide scale

Hegemonic Masculinity

proposed practices that promote the dominant social position of men, and the subordinate social position of some

Feminization of Poverty

the phenomenon in which women experience poverty at rates that are disproportionately high in comparison to men

Reproduction Rights

legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive heatlh

Imagined Communities

it is not (and, for practical reasons, cannot be) based on everyday face-to-face interaction between its members

Counter Hegemony

attempts to critique or dismantle hegemonic power. In other words it is a confrontation and/or opposition to existing status quo and its legitimacy in politics, but can also be observed in various other spheres of life, such as history, media, music etc

Constrained choices

forced decision making due to limits

Disciplinary practice

controlled behavior resulting from specific training

Personal is Political

rallying slogan during student movement as well as during the second wave of feminism

Media Literacy

21st century approach to education. It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate, create and participate with messages in a variety of forms-- from print to video to the internet