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20 Cards in this Set

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Origins of French Revolution
1. unbalanced class structure, large lower class peasants, no middle class, very tiny aristocracy
2. very incompetent monarchy in Louis XVI not intelligent enough to run France
3. poor administrative structure in France, bureaucracy overlapped itself, everything it did was inefficient
4. no representative assembly which can counter balance the monarchy
5. archaic legal system that desperately needed reform
6. vi. A tax system that favors the upper class
1. A tax system that favors the upper class
2. Dime – tax to church paid by peasants
3. Gabelle - tax on salt, which is used by everyone
7. growing middle class of educated people who read the works of the philosophs and admiration for the American revolution and want it to happen for them
8. Peasantry growing increasingly restless
9. bankruptcy of the Royal Treasury
Assembly of Notables
Highest ranking aristocrats assembled to try to fix debts and solved nothing
estates general
made up of the three estates of France, the three classes of people
first estate was the roman catholic clergy
Second estate is the nobles
rest fall into the third estate:
1. Industrial and commercial leaders (Bourgeoisie)
2. Shopkeepers, artisans, and professional people (Petite Bourgeoisie)
3. Industrial Workers (Proletariat)
4. Peasantry, majority
The Creation of The National Assembly
300 clergy, 300 nobles, 600 for third estate. At the first meeting of the third estate they demanded that the votes be by head and they wouldn’t proceed until king agreed. The third estates calls itself by a new name (first step towards revolution. The National Assembly
The Tennis Court Oath
e. They call on two other chambers to join them. The king tries to stop this by preventing them from getting into their chamber so they go to tennis court.... they will remain in session until they have written a constitution for France. Main supporter was Marquis De Lafayette, who fought with Washington
National Assembly (after revolution)
the assembly voted to abolish serfdom freeing peasants from estates they work on. They wrote a document, The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Mainly written by Lafayette
i. it basically stated the writes of the individual, life liberty property, security, resistance to oppression, freedom of thought and religion.
National Assembly (reforms)
abolish serfdom
confiscate all church property for money
reorganization of the country into 83 departments. All were about equal size reflecting a goal of equality
they require clergy to swear an oath of allegiance to France
Constitution of 1791
the king was going to be a limited monarch, only property owners could hold office, women could not vote, they hold elections for new assembly and members meet in Paris marking the opening of the Legislative Assembly (Oct 1791- Sept 1792) Marks the end of the first phase of the revolution.
legislative assembly
i. the Jacobins were in upper left corner, the extremists want more change, revolution not gone far enough, they want a republic, universal suffrage everyone can vote, they would shout down opposition at opponents on the other side of the chamber
ii. the Plain in lower middle chamber – moderate republicans, and some wanted to keep monarchy
iii. the True Monarchists – they want to keep monarchy, think revolution has gone to far
iv. chamber is arranged in a way that establishes the right and left ideologies
Three main leaders of Jacobins
i. Maximilien Robespierre – leader of the Jacobins he is an idealist/radical
ii. Jacques Danton – speaks for hours at a time and everyone would listen
1. eventually #1 and #2 men disagree and become bitter enemies
iii. Jean Paul Marat – wants to change the social structure of France, murdered in his bath tub. He had a skin disease which required him to take lots of baths
national convention
convenes, about 750 members, most are republicans and body is dominated by Jacobins and they have very strong leadership. At this point no more monarchists. On the right side of the chamber of this convention is a group called Girondins, they are republicans, most come from department of Gironde, main opponents of Jacobins, want a republic but not a radical one.
National Convention Actions
1. abolish the monarchy making the king totally irrelevant.
2. France will be call French Republic
3. w. That day would be the first day of year one starting a new calendar they changed the months to 10 months of 30 days each month named after festival to be held during that month
The Committee of Public Safety
replaced Monarchy, they look out for the security of the Regime routing out counter revolutionaries and conduct the war.
The Reign of Terror
committee of general security is established in charge of the revolutionary police looking for people against revolution. to strengthen committee The Law of Suspects is passed. 20 to 30 thousand exicuted
Maximilien Robespierre
He is in charge of Reign of Terror. he wants to establish “Republic of Virtue” he lays out these ideas in 94 and many start to turn against him. This was the most radical point in the revolution. He turns against Danton and has him executed because he believed he was dangerous. Committee of Public Safety moves against him and executes him
the Directory
national convention wrote a new constitution called constitution of 1795, which provided for a new government, the executive branch would be called the Directory
it consisted of five directors who would handle the executive branch
Napoleon Bonaparte (initial success)
just before the convention goes out of existence their was a mob that besieged the convention building. They wanted to stop the convention from going out of existence. They call in French forces commanded by Napoleon, he breaks up mob with canon fire, for that act he saves the government from new chaos, he is promoted and put in charge of keeping order within France.
Napoleon Bonaparte
born on Corsica, family has more roots in Italian but he was French speaking and was raised as French. When he was 10 his pop sent him to military school, by 16 he was an officer. He was promoted quickly, by 1793 he was Brigadier General, then promoted to Commander of French Army of the Interior.
1. He was a brilliant tactician, when he was outnumbered he demonstrated his ability to out maneuver them and deal with the smaller number.
2. He was popular with his men, he promoted enlisted men to officers for their actions and established Esprit De Corps, high moral, unity.
3. He establishes Legion of Honor, if you did something great you wear something on your uniform and belong to this organization. After his death you didn’t have to be in military to belong.
4. He gets involved further against the coalition and in 1796 he is sent to northern Italy to command army there, (army of Italy) Austria invades to keep Italians from revolution. Napoleon wins every battle there.
War of the First Coalition Ends
France keeps territory. In mean time Napoleon thinks he must invade India to get to Great Britain. In order to get to India he sails to Egypt and go by land to India. They land in Egypt and defeat the Egyptians at the battle of the pyramids. The British try to prevent this. In August 1798 a British fleet commanded by Lord Nelson sailed down to the coast of Egypt and attacked Napoleons fleet and destroyed most of it. At the Battle of the Nile. With the destruction of his fleet he was stuck there.
The Consulate
The directory wants him to come back to France and take over. He secretly goes back to France and gets to Paris, meets with members of the Directory and carry out a Coup D’ Etat, a forceful take over of government. The declare and end of the Directory. he establishes a new government call The Consulat