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21 Cards in this Set

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➢ First industrial revolution
Causes
• 1st cause – commercial revolution
2nd cause – great population increase
• 3rd cause – large amount of investment capitol
4th cause - wave of mechanical inventions
several reasons Revolution begins in England
The English are well suited for industry
they already had a light cotton industry
they were the leading colonial power
financial, militarily, economically
large and growing middle class
England had large supply of cheap labor
o Inventions that developed during first industrial revolution
John Kay (1733) invented the fly shuttle
James Hargreaves (1764) invented the spinning jenny
Richard Arkwright (1769) invented the water frame
Edmond Cartwright (1785) invented the Power Loom
➢ Enlightenment (definition)
refers to the intellectual movement
scholars focused on politics and philosophy in general and political reform and improving society
The leaders believed they could use reason and natural law to do this.
Denis Diderot
was publishing work
The Encyclopedie
he collected 160 writers
28 volumes, science literature politics, intellectuals and scholars wanted copies of the whole set
In Europe they tried to stop the spreading of the works.
• Francois Arouet (Voltaire)
mainly a political philosopher he believed that the absolute monarchy could be a good government is it had a benevolent monarch. He also admired the British system that had a limited constitutional system, didn’t like the ancient democratic government of Greece, strong critic of organized religion it had to much control of population, he lays ground work for agitation of political revolution later, especially in France
Baron De Montesquieu
he was also an aristocrat, he writes a major work The Spirit of the Laws, (1748) nations should have political systems that harmonize with there cultural and historical traditions, for ex Russia being so large having tradition of absolute monarchy so other political system wouldn’t work. Contributed idea of Separation of Powers – practiced in Britain, separate coequal couldn’t take each other over
Jean Jacques Rousseau (most influential)
most famous work was the social contract published in 1772, theory that contract between the ruler and the ruled and if contract broken revolution justified, he believed that man was corrupted by civilization, and that reason wasn’t a good guide to…. He was Sophist and idealist, his main idea in social contract was “the General Will” when the citizen sees societies welfare as his, what’s good for you is good for everyone. He advocated a solution were all points of views are combined and one who makes the laws lives by the laws. Kind of vague. He is misunderstood by many.
deism
a scientific approach to god or creator, he established the natural laws that govern the universe, god doesn’t interfere with man. He is called by some the “master clock winder”, eventually they come up with three basic principles –
• creator exists,
• there are universal moral laws that man can discover through reason i.e. life liberty and property are natural moral laws,
• third is rationalism, rationalism can be used to reveal truth.
Effect on Joseph II of Austria
he read their works and demonstrated it by religious tolerance and freedom of the press and promoted education with public school system but opposed by aristocrats and when he died his reforms were discarded and returned to absolutist government with secret police and persecution.
Effect on Catherine the Great of Russia
she read Voltaire and Diderot works also, they visited her in Russia she tried to reform the Russian legal system and sympathized with small middle class in Russia, was far as she went, probably encouraged to abolish Serfdom but didn’t, nor press, or religious freedom, she died recanting all the things she said about enlightenment.
Effect on Frederick the Great of Prussia
best of the enlightened leaders, he called himself a deist and did religious tolerance he was a poet musician, patron of the arts, read philosophy, and discussed it, but his state didn’t really change much, he did improve agriculture and reformed judicial system and opposed economic freedom, kept serfdom, expansionist.
Adam Smith
his most famous work The Wealth of Nations, he attacks the theory of mercantilism and citizens harshly, the best economics system is one based on Laissez Faire, free trade free economy no duties or restriction on trade. It does start to have an effect after his death.
o First time enlightenment is put into practice
is in the United States
• Declaration of Independence – Thomas Jefferson gets full credit for writing it. The war had broken out trying to get British to respect American rights, then they decided that breaking away would be better. They decide to produce a document explaining reason, logical, justifiable reason for revolution. One of the first times all colonists defined as “one people”.
• Main influence for Declaration of Independence is Locke
• this didn’t create a government just independent states. First article of confederation, real week, then constitutional convention, and constitution.
War of the Austrian Succession
King of Prussia, Frederick, invades Austria (H.R.E.) because he doesn't see successor of H.R.E., Maria Theresa, as legitimate. Britain sides with Austria and France sides with Prussia. War ends with Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Britain and Austria loose war with Fance and Prussia resulting in territoty being given back to France, Prussia is allowed to retain captured Silesia. Another war inevitable.
Whats starts the French and Indian War
They focus their attention on America, the source of the Ohio river, if you control the forks of the Ohio you control the interior of America, Virginians go out there first thinking it was a part of there charter but by 1753 the British had already established a presence. The spark that sets off the next war by George Washington, (1753) he is sent out to inform the French that they must leave because it was British Territory. He comes back and governor of Virginia decides that have to make a show of force and goes out their with a militia and discovers that there was a small French force that was unaware of his presence and he attacks it. It is the first fight of what is known in the colonies as the French and Indian War
the 7 Years War
begins with an action by Prussia when the Prussian king Frederick the Great invaded another territory called Saxony in the winter of 1756 and got away with it. War goes back and forth in Europe. Frederick the Great holds his own. He beats the Russians so severally that the had to drop out in 1762. When the war ends in 63 he has to give up Saxony but holds onto Silesia.
turning point in north America (French and Indian War)
new prime minister takes over in great britian names William Pitt, he uses all of the recources at his disposal to defeat france, first imposes naval blocade of French coast, effective. Then the british sends large amounts of reinforcement to Canada, a new force takes to forks of the ohio and cut off the French forces. A force also leaves from new york and captures a fort, Louisbourg, it was thought that it was impregnable but it falls to british, second big blow. Next part they attack Quebec, if you hold Quebec you control Canada, plan was to send two columbs in two directions, one from north one from south, one from south can’t make it. General of forces from north decides to go on without forces from south. He goes there at night and find them at night, French army comes out and fight the Battle of Quebec, battle ends in 30 minutes, trajecly Wolfe is mortally wounded. Turns out to be a decisive victory. war in America basically over
Spain enters war (7 years War)
on the side of France, and British immediately attack them and capture Havana and Manila in the Philippines, also in India British are making gains. Deplomatic negotiations had begun and they agree to “The Peace of Paris” (1763).
Results of French and Indian War and Seven Years War
French are basically gone from North America. Leaving French with a couple o islands in the Caribbean.
• The British signed treaty with Spanish and the Spanish give up Florida to british and british give back the territories they took from them