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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Why did the Soviet Union need to change?

- in 1928, Ussr still a poor and backward country

THREE main reasons for developing industry quickly;

- to provide machinery, to mechanise farming

- to catch up with the Western world and make Russia les dependent

- to have a strong industry capable of producing armaments for fighting/ defence

How was he able to develop industry?

To develop industry, Stalin had to first develop agriculture.

- Stalin needed to produce more food, especially grain, to feed the growing number of workers

- need to export grain to foreign countries in order to earn currency to buy goods and machinery

Explain the Planned Economy under Stalin

Stalin and the Communists believed:

The way to develop/run the economy was through state planning. Determining how much was produced, by whom, when.

Five year plans introduced.

How did Five Year Plans work?

They set production targets which industries much reach.

- eg, coal industry 75mil tonnes by 1932. specific coal rich areas and local managers given own targets.

- 1st: 1928-32

- 2nd: 1933- 37

- 3rd: 1938-41 (interrupted by WW2)

What did the Five Year Plans consist of?

1: emphasized heavy industries, coal, iron, oil, steel, electricity. Targets set high but achieved remarkable results.

2: still heavy industry, but communications especially railways became important (link cities)

3: ran for only 3 years, but as war approached more resources put into developing armaments, tanks, planes, weapons.

How were the workers made to work so hard?

A better society





Details on a better society and propaganda.

The workers believed that they were building a better Russia for their children and so they were inspired to work hard.

A huge amount of propaganda was used to stir everyone into comradeship and patriotism

Details on awards, wages, and punishments.

Exemplary workers such as Alexei Stakhanov who mined 102 tons of coal in a shift (14x expected amount) were used as models for people to follow.

Wages were used as incentives, workers paid according to how much was produced.

Strict measures for slackers ie labour camp.

How were collective farms formed?

- peasants encouraged to put their individual plots together to form a kolkhoz.

- run by a committee

- they would work together and share everything

- some produce would be sold at a low price

- in return, the state would provide agricultural machinery to help efficient farming.

Why did the Communists support collectivism?

- Agriculture still backwards, collectives made it easier to introduce modern machinery especially tractors.

- More efficient mechanised agriculture needed fewer peasants, more would be free to work in industry

- easier for the state to collect grain from

- Collectivisation was the socialist way to farm the land, replaced capitalist attitudes.

Why was collectivisation so urgent?

The food crisis of the late 1920s. Despite good harvests of 1925 and 1928, peasants were holding back grain because the state didn't pay much for it and they couldn't afford to buy much. Stalin was tired of the struggle yearly to get grain, blaming the kulaks for hoarding grain, many were arrested and deported.

How was collectivisation carried out?

in 1930 groups of activists would persuade peasants to sign a register demanding collectivisation.

The animals, implements and buildings would be taken from the kulaks to form the basis for the new collective farm.

If peasants refused they were labelled kulaks and shot/deported, sent to labour camps.

What happened to the kulaks?

"Dekulakisation" was central to the collectivisation process. It was important to have a class enemy as a scapegoat to blame for everything wrong.

By 1930s kulak meant very little, but communists insisted they had to be found and cleaned out.

He used class hatred to whip up the hysteria. Peasants denounced eachother, children encouraged to inform.

How did the peasants react to Collectivisation?

Badly, with fierce resistance.

They preferred to slaughter their animals than sell. They burned crops, tools, houses rather than hand over to state.

It was so bad that March 1930 Stalin called a temporary halt, he was worried there would be no crop to harvest in the summer. Once the harvest was gathered in, the process began again but slowly and more violently.

What after Collectivisation was established?

- disastrous harvest 1932

- extremely severe famine 1932-33

- food was still being exported from USSR to other places.

- Stalin sent out requisitioning gangs to take grain to stores "almost bursting" whilst his people starved

- at least 13 million peasants and maybe more died as a result of collectivisation

- Stalin succeeded in getting grain needed for industrialisation