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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Damaged tissues are repaired in what 2 ways?

What do you know about each way?


- replacementof dead or damaged cells with original cells

–restoresnormal function

–skininjuries & liver regenerate

and fibrosis

- Replacement of damaged cells with scare tissue (collagen)

–helpshold organ together

- function is not restored

–healing muscle injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB or healing of severe cuts &burns of the skin

–keloidis healing with excessive fibrosis (raised shiny scars)

Define Histology

The study of tissues and how they form organs

Define Matrix (extracellular material)

Material that surrounds the cells

Could be made of either: fibrous proteins,

ground substance

Define ground substance

–clear gel called many different names (Extra Cellular Fluid, tissue fluid, interstitial fluid, tissue gel)

–rubbery or stony in cartilage or bone (varies in consistency)

Define Longitudinal section

tissue cut along the longest direction of an organ

Define Transverse section

a cross section obtained by slicing, actually or through imaging techniques, the body or any part of the body structure, in a horizontal plane, a plane that intersects the longitudinal axis at a right angle.

Define Cross section

tissue cut perpendicular to the length of an organ

Define Oblique section

–tissuecut at an angle between a cross & longitudinal section

Define Basement membrane

a thin, delicate membrane of protein fibers and glycosaminoglycans separating an epithelium from underlying tissue.

Define Keratinized stratified squamous

•Multilayeredepithelium covered with layer of compact, dead squamous cells packed withprotein keratin

•Retardswater loss & prevents penetration of organisms

•Formsepidermal layer of skin

Define Non-keratinized stratified squamous

•Multilayeredepithelium that lacks surface layer of dead cells forming abrasion-resistant,moist, slippery layer

•Foundon tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus & vagina

Define Collagenous fibers

–tough,resist stretch yet flexible

–tendons,ligaments & deep layer of the skin (dermis)

Define Reticular fibers

–thincollagen fibers coated with glycoprotein

- formframework for spleen & lymph nodes

a lot of ground substance is in reticular tissue

Define Elastic fibers

–thinbranching fibers made of elastin

–stretch& recoil like rubberband(elasticity)

- giveskin, lungs & arteries ability to stretch & recoil

Define Glycosaminoglycan

–(GAGs)– chondroitin sulfate

•unusualdisaccharides that attract sodium & hold water

•importantrole in regulating water & electrolyte balance

Define Proteoglycan

•embeddedin plasma membranes creating a strong bond to other cells or extracellularmacromolecules

core protein and chondroitin sulfate (a glycosaminoglycan)

Define Loose connective tissue

•Looseconnective tissue

–containsgel-like ground substance between cells





(lots of ground substance)

Define Dense connective tissue

–fibersfill the spaces between cells

–2types varying in fiber orientation

•denseregular connective tissue

•denseirregular connective tissue

(more fibers than ground substance in this tissue type)

Define Reticular tissue

•Loosenetwork of reticular fibers and cells

•Formssupportive stroma (framework) for lymphatic organs

•Foundin lymph nodes, spleen, thymus & bone marrow

Define Adipose tissue

•Large,empty-looking cells with thin margins; nucleus pressed against cell membrane

•Energystorage, insulation, space filled as cushioning

•Subcutaneous fat beneath skin & surrounding organs

–brown fat found in hibernating animals produces heat only no ATP

Define Dense regular connective tissue

•Densely,packed, parallel collagen fibers; compressed fibroblast nuclei & scantyopen space

•Tendons & ligaments hold bones together and attach muscles to bones

Define Chondroblasts

•producematrix, once surrounded are called chondrocytes

secretethe matrix and surround themselves with it until they become trapped in little cavitiescalled lacunae. Once enclosed inlacunae, the cells are called condrocytes.

Define Chondrocytes

•Chondroblastsproduce matrix, once surrounded are called chondrocytes

Define Hyaline cartilage

•Clear,glassy matrix; fine dispersed collagen fibers; chondrocytes in small clustersenclosed in lacunae

Supports airway, eases joint movements

•Overends of bones at movable joints; sternal ends of ribs; supportive material inlarynx, trachea, bronchi and fetal skeleton

(made up of long bones)

Define Elastic cartilage

•Hyalinecartilage with weblike meshof elastic fibers amongst the lacunae; always has perichondrium

•Providesflexible, elastic support

•Externalear and epiglottis

Define Fibrocartilage

•Cartilagecontaining extensive parallel collagen fibers; never has perichondrium

•Resistscompression and absorbs shock in some joints

•Pubicsymphysis, meniscus & intervertebral discs

(very tough)

Define Osseous tissue

bone tissue

Define Spongy bone

•Spongybone looks spongy in appearance

–delicate struts of bone

–fills heads of long bones

–always covered by compact bone

(end of long bone withstands stress in both directions)

Define Compact bone

–more complex arrangement

–cells and matrix surrounding vertically oriented blood vessels in long bones

(very organized and very vascular)

Define Haversian canals

any of the minute tubes that form a network in bone and contain blood vessels.

found in compact bone

(where blood vesicles and nerves are)

Define Osteocytes

a bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted.

found in compact bone

Define Plasma

Plasma is the yellowish fluid in blood. It consists of dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, mineral ions, hormones and carbon dioxide. In the body, plasma serves as a medium to transport essential substances in blood.

Define Erythrocytes

appearas pale pink discs with light centers and no nuclei (RBCs).

Define Leukocytes

(WBCs) are larger, fewer and have nuclei

Define Platelets

aresmall cell fragments scattered amid the blood cells. They are involved in clotting and othermechanisms for minimizing blood loss.

Define Soma

The soma, or neuronal cell body houses thenucleus and most other organelles, this is the cells center of genetic controland protein synthesis.

Define Axon

The long branch is the axon sends outgoingsignals to the other cells.

Define Dendrites

a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.

Define Skeletal muscle

•Long, cylindrical, unbranched cells with striations and multiple peripheral nuclei

•Movement, facial expression, posture, breathing, speech, swallowing and excretion

Define Myoctyes

muscle cell; type of cell found in muscle tissue

Define Cardiac muscle

Short branched cells (myocytes) with striations and intercalated discs; one central nuclei per cell

•Pumping of blood

•Found in the heart

Define Intercalated discs

Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle consists of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) connected by intercalated discs to work as a single functional organ or syncytium.

Define Smooth muscle

•Short fusiform cells; nonstriated withonly one central nucleus

•Swallowing, GI tract functions, labor contractions, control of airflow, erection of hairs& control of pupil

•Sheets of muscle in viscera; iris; hair follicles & sphincters

Define Tight junction

•Tightjunctions completely encircle the cell joining it to surrounding cells

–zipperlikepattern of complementary grooves & ridges

–preventssubstances and bacteria from passing between cells

–foundin GI andurinary tracts

Define Desmosome

•Patchbetween 2 cells holding them together against mechanical stress

–gapbetween cells is spanned by mesh of filaments terminating on a thick proteinplaque–cytoplasmicintermediate filaments also attach to plaque

•Doesnot encircle the cell

•Commonin uterus,heart and epidermis

Define Gap junction

•Knownas communicating junctions

•Ringof 6 transmembrane proteins form a water-filled channel

•Smallsolutes pass directly from cell to cell for electrical signals

•Foundin embryos, cardiac &smooth muscle

Define Exocrine gland

•maintain connection to surface with a duct (epithelial tube)

- sweat glands are an example of this

Define Endocrine gland

•have no ducts but secrete their products (hormones) directly into bloodstream

Define Hyperplasia

tissue growth through cell multiplication

Name some organs that have both exocrine and endocrine glands:

liver, gonads, and pancrease

Define Hypertrophy

enlargement of preexisiting cells

- muscles grow this way through exercise

Define Neoplasia

growth of a tumor (benign or malignant) through growth of abnormal tissue

Define Metaplasia

abnormal change in the nature of a tissue.

Define Regeneration

–replacementof dead or damaged cells with original cells

–restoresnormal function

–skininjuries & liver regenerate

Define Fibrosis

–replacementof damaged cells with scar tissue (collagen)

–helpshold organ together

-- function is not restored–healingmuscle injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB or healing of severe cuts &burns of the skin

–keloidis healing with excessive fibrosis (raised shiny scars)

Define Granulation tissue

new vascular tissue in granular form on an ulcer or the healing surface of a wound.

Define Atrophy

•isshrinkage from loss of cell size/number

–senileatrophy is due to aging

–disuseatrophy from lack of use (leg in a cast)

Define Necrosis

•pathologicaldeath of tissue

–gangreneis due to insufficient blood supply

–gasgangrene is due to anaerobic bacterial infection

–infarctionis sudden death of tissue from lack of blood

–decubitusulcer is bed sore or pressure sore

Define Gangrene

Define gas gangreen

necrosis of tissue due to insufficient blood supply

–gasgangrene is due to anaerobic bacterial infection

Define Infarction

the obstruction of the blood supply to an organ or region of tissue, typically by a thrombus or embolus, causing local death of the tissue.

Define Decubitus ulcer

is bed sore or pressure sore

Define Apoptosis

•isprogrammed cell death

–cellsshrink & are phagocytized (no inflammation)

•webbingbetween fingers, uterus after delivery, earlobes

Define Dermal papillae

•the boundary between the epidermis and dermis, it is upward extensions of thedermis into the epidermis forming the ridges of the fingerprints

Define Papillary layer

–areolar tissue & forms 1/5 the thickness of the dermis. Allows for mobility of WBCs and other defenses against organisms introduced through breaks in the epidermis.

Define Reticular layer

–deeperpart of 4/5ths of the dermis, dense connective tissue.

Define Eschar

a dry, dark scab or falling away of dead skin, typically caused by a burn, or by the bite of a mite, or as a result of anthrax infection.

Define Debridement

the removal of damaged tissue or foreign objects from a wound.

The whole body contains only _____ different cell types.


What are the four primary tissue classes?





What is the most abundant and variable tissue type?

connective tissue

What are the three primary germ layers?

What do they form?

ectoderm (outer) - forms epidermis and nervous system

Endoderm (inner) - Forms mucous membranes lining GI tract and respiratory system and digestive glands

Mesoderm (middle) - forms mesenchyme that gives rise to muscle, bone, blood and other connective tissue

What is epithelial tissue?

one or more layersof closely adhering cells

•Formsa flat sheet with the upper surface exposed to the environment or an internalbody cavity

•Noroom for blood vessels

–dependson underlying connective tissue for oxygen

•Sitson basement membrane (basal surface of cells) (cells are anchored by the basement membrane)

–thinlayer of collagen and adhesive proteins

–anchorsepithelium to underlying connective tissue

What epithelium tissue is classified as simple?

- contains one layer of cells

Named by the shape of the cells

- squamous epithelium, cubodialepithelium, columnar epithelium, pseudostratified epithelium

What is stratified epithelium?

contains more than one layer

named by the shape of apical cells

What are examples of connective tissue?

tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue and blood

What is the function of connective tissue?

connects organs to each other

gives support and protection (physical and immune)

storage of energy and heat production

movement and transport of materials

what three connective tissue types are found in the lymphatic system?

What does each type do?

•Macrophages wander through connectivetissue phagocytizing foreign material & activating immune system -- arise from monocytes (WBC) (help to stop infection)

•Neutrophils wander in search of bacteria

•Plasma cells synthesize antibodies --arise WBC

function of fibroblasts

produce fibers and ground substance

function of mast cells

•secrete heparin that inhibitsclotting and histamine that dilates blood vessels

function of adipocytes

•or fat cells store triglycerides

What is ground substance made up of?

What is the function of each of these three large molecules?

glycosaminoglycans(GAGs) unusualdisaccharides that attract sodium & hold water

•importantrole in regulating water & electrolyte balance

–proteoglycanis bottlebrush-shaped molecule •embeddedin plasma membranes creating a strong bond to other cells or extracellularmacromolecules


•protein-carbohydratecomplexes that bind plasma membrane to collagen or proteoglycans outside thecells

•markpathways for cell migration

areolar tissue is underlaying what structure?

What is areolar tissue?

all epithelia

Loosearrangement of collagenous and elastic fibers, scattered cell types &abundant ground substance

•Underlyingall epithelia forming passageway for nerves & blood vessels; fascia betweenmuscles

What is cartilage?

•Supportiveconnective tissue with rubbery matrix

•Chondroblastsproduce matrix, once surrounded are called chondrocytes

•Noblood vessels so diffusion must bring in nutrients & remove wastes

–injuredcartilage does not heal well (no blood flow)

•Majortypes of cartilage depend upon fiber types

–hyaline,fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage

function of Nerve tissue

for internal communication between cells, found in brain spinal cord, nerves and ganglia

Muscle tissue form and function

what are the three histological types of muscle?

•Elongated cells that respond to stimuliby contracting

•Function is to exert physical force onother tissues


–pushblood through a vessel


•Important source of body heat

•3 histological types of muscle

–skeletal,cardiac and smooth

What are the different kinds of membranes found within the human body?

cutaneous - largest - skin

mucous - lines passageways

serous - produces watery, serous fluid

synovial membranes - skeletal system

What are holocrine glands?

•Secretorycells disintegrate in order to deliver their accumulated product & somecell fragments

•Oil-producingglands of the scalp are an example

What are Merocrine glands?

•Merocrineglands release their product by exocytosis

–tears,gastric glands, pancreas, etc.

(most numerous gland in the skin)

(- serves to cool body secretion by exocytosis)

Musous membranes line passageways that open to the exterior. These passageways are:

digestive, respiratory urinary and reproductive

Tissue is repairs in what two ways?

regeneration or fibrosis

What are the steps of wound healing in a laceration?

1. •Damagedvessels leak blood•Damagedcells & mast cells leak histamine–dilatesblood vessels–increasesblood flow–increasescapillary permeability•Plasmaseeps into wound carrying antibodies, clotting factors & WBCs

2. •Clotforms•Scabforms on surface•Macrophagesstart to clean up debris

3. •Newcapillaries grow into wound•Fibroblastsdeposit new collagen to replace old material•Fibroblasticphase begins in 3-4 days & lasts up to 2 weeks

4. •Surfaceepithelial cells multiply & spread beneath scab•Scabfalls off•Epitheliumgrows thicker (regenerates)•Connectivetissue forms only scar tissue (fibrosis)•Remodelingphase may last 2 years (depends on severity of wound)

What is the basic function and major components of stratum basal?

Lowest level

•Singlelayer of cuboidal or low columnar cells sitting on basement membrane

•Celltypes in this layer


•undergomitosis to replace epidermis

–melanocytessynthesize melanin

•distributemelanin from cell processes

–Merkelcells are touch receptors associated with nerve fibers to form Merkel disc

- tactile cells, & stem cells, which divide and replace kartenocites that move up the skin and replace lost skin cells.

What is the basic function and major components of stratum spinosum?

•Severallayers of keratinocytesthick

–appearspiny due to shrinkageduring histological preparation

•Containsdendritic (Langerhans)cells

–macrophagesfrom bone marrowthat migrate to the epidermis

–helpprotect body against pathogens by “presenting” them to the immune system

(thickest stratum except in thick skin when the startum corneum is a bit thicker)

What is the basic function and major components of stratum granulosum?

•3 to 5 layers of flat keratinocytes (flattened)

•Contain keratinohyalingranules

–combinewith filaments of cytoskeleton to form keratin

•Produces lipid-filled vesiclesthatrelease a glycolipid by exocytosisto waterproof the skin

–formsa barrier between surface cellsand deeper layers of the epidermis

What is the basic function and major components of stratum lucidum?

•Thintranslucent zone seen onlyin thick skin

•Keratinocytesare packed witheleidin,a precursor to keratin

–doesnot stain well

•Cellshave no nucleus ororganelles

(thinner, only seen in thick skin. Lots of karotenocytes, pale non-remarkable appearance with unclear boundaries)

What is the basic function and major components of stratum corneum?

•Upto 30 layers of dead, scaly,keratinized cells–surfacecells flake off (exfoliate)

- makes the skin very durable and resistant to abrasions and water loss

What are the 5 layers of skin from superficial to deep?

1. stratum corneum

2. stratum lucidum

3. stratum granulosum

4. stratum spinosum

5. stratum basale

acronym (crying little girls spray buggers)

What are the components of the dermis?

blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, nail roots, nerve endings.

Composed mainly of collagen but also has elastic and reticular fibers

contains sensory nerve endings, and muscular tissue

Located under the epidermis

What is between the epidermis and dermis?

dermal papillae it is upward extensions of the dermis into the epidermis forming ridges of the fingerprints

What are the two layers of the dermis?

papillary layer and reticular layer

What is the functions and components of the hypodermis?

•Knownas subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia

•Hasmore adipose than dermis





–intosubcutaneous tissue since highly vascular

What is hemoglobin?

red pigment of the red blood cells, visable through dermal collagen fibers

What is carotene?

yellow pigment of vegetables and egg yolks

-concentratesin stratum corneum& subcutaneous fat

what is melanin?

•pigmentproduced by melanocytes

–pigmentsynthesis stimulated by UV radiation from sunlight

–producesyellow, brown, black and reddish hues

What are the functions of the skin?

•Barrier= tough, dry, acid mantle, water barrier, UV barrier

•VitaminD synthesis

–beginsin epidermal keratinocytes under influence of UV light

–helpsmaintain health of skeleton•Sensoryfunctions

–receptorsfor heat, cold, touch, pressure, vibration & pain

•Thermoregulation= thermoreceptorsand sweat glands

–hypothalamusconstricts or dilates cutaneous arteries and sweat glands to retain ordissipate heat

•Psychologicaland social functions

–appearance& social acceptance

–facialexpression and nonverbal communication

What are hemangionas?


What is a hematona?

a bruise

what is albinism?

a genetic lack of melanin

what is pallor?

a pale color from lack of blood flow

what is bronzing?

a golden-frown color of Addison disease

•(deficiencyof glucocorticoid hormone)

What is jaundice?

•isyellowing of skin & sclera due to excess of bilirubin in blood (liverdisease)

What is erythema?

•isredness due to dilated cutaneous vessels (anger, sunburn, embarrassment)

What is cyanosis?

•isblueness resulting from deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood (coldweather)

What are Apocrine glands?

•Apocrineglands are really merocrineglands but confusing appearance (apical cytoplasm not lost as used to bebelieved)

–mammary& armpit sweat glands

thicker more milky sweat (more fatty acids)

responds to sexual and stress stimulation

What are sebaceous glands?

secrete oily solution called sebum that contains broken down cells

flask shaped gland that opens into hair follicle

What are ceruminous glands?

•Foundonly in external ear canal

•Theirsecretion combines with sebum to produce earwax

What are mammary glands?

•Breastsof both sexes rarely contain glands

–secondarysexual characteristic of females

mammaryglandular tissue found only during lactation and pregnancy

•modifiedapocrine sweat gland

•thickersecretion released by ducts open on the nipple

What are the three stages of burns?

Where are the burns located on the skin?

–1st-degree= only the epidermis (red, painful & edema)

–2nd-degree= epidermis & part of dermis (blistered)

•epidermisregenerates from hair follicles & sweat glands

–3rd-degree= epidermis, dermis & more is destroyed•oftenrequires grafts or fibrosis & disfigurement may occur

What is the treatment for burns?

fluid replacement and (infection control in 3rd degree burns)

What permanent graft options are available for third degree burns?

–autograft-- tissue from different region of patient

–isograft-- skin graft tissue from identical twin

–culturedkeratinocyte patches

What are the temporary graft options for for the immune system?

–homograft(allograft) - graft from unrelated person

–heterograft(xenograft) -- tissue from another species

–amnionfrom an afterbirth

–artificialskin from silicone and collagen

What is an isograft?

skin graft tissue from identical twin

What is an autograft?

tissue from different region of patient

What is a homograft?

graft from an unrelated person

What is a heterograft (allograft)?

tissue from another species

What is a amnion graft?

a graft from an afterbirth