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45 Cards in this Set

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Bone Formation: Cartilaginous

Bone gradually replaces cartilage


More common Mode

Bone Formation: Intramembranoues

Not preceded by cartilage - Bone directly replaces mesenchyme


Many bones of vault


Rapid Bone formation


Many flat bones are formed this way



Neurocranium: Brain Case/Vault

Frontal


Parietal


Occipital


Sphenoid


Temporal


Ethmoid

Viscerocranium: Facial skeleton

Zygomatic


NasalMandible


Maxilla


Vomer

Fontanelles

Soft Spot of infant's head



Anterior Fontanelle

Bregma


Coronal Suture intersected perpendicular by the saggital suture

Evolution of Primate Skull

Orbital Convergence


Reduction in snout


Forward placement of Foramen Magnum


Increase in Vault Size


reinforcement of mandible

Changes in Cranial Size in Development

Compared to Body Weight, Cranial gets smaller,

Cranial Suture: Coronal Suture

Separates Frontal & Parietal

Cranial Suture: Sagittal Suture

Separates 2 sides of the parietal

Cranial Suture: Lambdoid Suture

Separates parietal with occipital


Back of the head

Cranial suture: Squamosal Suture

Separates Temporal & Parietal

Hominin Evolution

Increased Cranial Capacity


Emergence of mental protuberance


Browridge Reduction


Decreased prognathism

Cranial Comparative Anatomy: Lemur

Small Vault


Lateral Orbits


Posterior foramen Magnum


Prognathic

Cranial Comparative Anatomy: Macaque

Larger Crania Vault


Anterior Orbits


Bony Enclosed orbits

Cranial Comparative Anatomy: Apes

Supraorbita Torus


Sagittal Crest


Occipital Crest

Brainstem

Primitive


Involuntary Functions



Brainstem Consists of:

Midbrain


Pons


Medulla

Cerebellum

Possesses Neocortex


Movement,


Posture


Balance

Cerebrum

Thoughts & Action

Region of Cerebrum


Function of Cerebrum: Temporal Lobe

Smell


Hearing

Function of Cerebrum: Frontal Lobe

Personaliity


Movement


Sensation


Speech

Function of Cerebrum: Parietal Lobe

Language Area


Some Sensation

Function of Cerebrum: Occiptal Lobe

Vision

Hemispheres

Right & Left Hemispheres:


Decreases Redundancy
Increased efficiency of Space

Left Hemisphere

Speech & Word Memory

Right Hemisphere

Proportion Concepts, Relationships

Wernicke's Area

Speech Comprehension

Broca's Area

Speech Production

Association of Brain parts

Wernicke's Area -> Broca's Area -> Motor Cortex

Broca's Aphasia

Can Comprehend, cannot speak

Wernicke's Aphasia

Can Speak;Cannot comprehend

Primate Trends

Increased Frontal lobe


Smaller Occipital Lobe (In humans)


Increase in overall size





Primate Trends: Homo

Increase in brain Relative to Body size


Frontal & Occipital loves increase in size


Reduction of Olfactory bulbs, & increase in visual Cortex

Encephalization

Increase in size relative to body


Behavior & brain co-evolve


Changed shape of human cranium

2 Million Years of Evolution

???

Cranial nerves: OVerview

Emerge from brain


12 Pair


1 &2 Cerebrum


3-12 Brainstem


Numbered from Anterior to Posterior on brain

Learn the Acronyms!

2 of them

Acronyms

Cranial Nerve I: Olfactory Nerve

Special Sense: Smell


Enters skull through:


Crihiform Plate of Ethmoid


Synpase in Olfactory Bulb

Cranial Nerve II: Optic Nerve

Special Sense: Light Detection


Enters Skull:


Optic Canal of Sphenoid



Cranial Nerves III: Oculomotor Nerve


Cranial Nerves IV: Tochlear Nerve


Cranial Nerves VI: Abducens Nerve



Motor Nerves to eye muscles: Control eye movements


Exits Skull:


-Superior Orbital fissure of Sphenoid

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal

Both Motor & Sensory


3 branches

Cranial Nerve V1: Opthalmic Divison

Sensory to: eyeball, orbit, upper lid, external nose, forehead