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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Acidity on pipes causes


Hardness on pipes

Limestone or calcium deposits choke off the flow. And affects the heat exchange


A piece of metal is often inserted in the water tank to divert the deposi- tion rather than allowing it to form on the heat exchanger.

How to soften water

This is done using the zeolite or ion exchange process.

Lift: 1psi

2.3 ft column water

Pressure regulators

If pressure exceeds 80psi

Downfeed system

Tank on roof. Water can be pushed up from below to just about any height. However, it can never be sucked up from above to any height greater than 33 feet, which is the static head equivalent of atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psi.

Pneumatic tank

pressurized tank in the basement to supply higher levels. Some air is left in the tank, which can be compressed to act as a spring pushing up on the water in the tank

Thermal expansion formula

∆L = Lk(T – T )

where ∆L = the change in length L = length 2 1 k = coefficient of expansion T1 = original temperature T2 = final temperature

Soil stack

large pipe into which all of the soil and waste lines from one or more levels empty

Vent stack

smaller pipe that is the air intake line for all the fixtures, and that is also, separately, open to the outside air at the top.

minimum diameter for a vent

1 1/4′′ or half the diameter of the drain it services, whichever is larger.

Loop venting

Branch vent return to stack vent instead of vent stack


device which keeps grease and other waste matter from the building out of the sewer system


every 50 feet in pipes under 4 inches in diameter, and every 100 feet in larger pipes.


cesspool is simply an underground chamber with a porous bottom and porous walls. The sewage soaks into the surrounding ground

Septic tanks are sized

expected flow of 100 gallons per day per person, with a minimum capacity of 500 gallons.

Leach field

ceramic pipe laid underground, not quite together end to end, so that the liquid leaks out, over a bed of gravel, which filters the liquid waste before it seeps into the soil.

ABS Piping

Black pipe for drainage

Stack vent vs vent stack

Gate valve

Globe valve

Check valve

shock arrestors or surge arrestors

Solution to water hammer is to insert a cushion or device with a damping effect somewhere in the system

fixture unit (FU).

fixture unit (FU). The relationship between gallons per minute (gpm) and FU is not constant, but varies with the number of fix- ture units. For example, 1,000 FU is equivalent to 220 gpm, yet 2,000 FU is not double that, but is only 1.5 times as much, or 330 gpm.

vacuum breaker

Where siphoning is likely. This avoids the waste water being sucked into the faucet if there is a loss of pressure in the supply line,

Group d water is naturally: soft or hard?


Acidic ph

Low ph

Catch basin

Inlet into the drainage system for water runoff

House water pressure:

40s. Fixtures are min 20 max 80 psi