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125 Cards in this Set

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Role of a vet tech?

-Help educate




-Protect public




-Preform tests to help diagnose




-Differentiate normal form abnormal

#1 rule of vet meds?

Do not harm

Define disease?

Anything that alters the homeostasis or equilibrium of the body.

Define etiology?

Cause

What does NAMEDIT stand for?

Nutritional, neoplasia


Autoimmune, anomaly


Metabolic


Environmental, endocrine


Degenerative, developmental (genetic)


Infectious, inflammatory, Idiopathic


Trauma, toxin

Define Idiopathic?

No identifiable cause

Abdominomegaly?

May be fluid, mass, air.

Edema?

Accumulation of fluid in tissues.

Ascites?

Fluid in abdominal cavity.

Color of anemia in MM?

Pale due to low RBC count.

Cyanosis?

Condition in MM. Blue due to lack of oxygen

Icterus?

Condition in MM. Bilirubin is present.

Emesis?

Vomiting

Regurgitation?

Backflow of ingested contents

Polyphagia?

Increased appetite.

Pollakiuria?

Frequent urination.

Discolored urination causes?

Hematuria or bilirubinuria

Types of cough?

Non productive and productive

Syncope?

Fainting

Paresis?

Weakness of partial paralysis

Define Epidemiology?

The study of disease occurrence and the risk factor caused in populations.

What does epidemiology do?

Enables us to predict which animals would be affected and what happens when a disease progresses.




Also helps control outbreaks.

Endemic disease?

A disease that exists in a given area.

Epidemic disease?

An outbreak of disease at more than the expected frequency.

Reservoir?

A species or non living environment where microorganisms can reproduce and survive.

Host?

A living organism that offers and environment for a microorganism.

Indirect transmission?

Something that carries an organism from host to host.

Vector?

Living organism that transports infection.

What 4 conditions are needed for a disease to occur?

Reservoir




Host




Transmission




Susceptible host

How to control Zoonosis?

Awareness


Recognize people at risk


Control risk factors

What population are at risk?

Children and old people.


Immunocompromised ppl.


Pregnant people.


People with animal contact.

What are some control risk factors?

Vaccinate


Control parasites and vectors


Sanitation


Monitor with fecal exams

What is Rabies?

Viral disease of mammals


Fatal


Dogs/cats/ farm animals are predictable.

What animals can carry rabies for a long time while infected?

Skunks and bats.

What animals infrequently get rabies?

Rodents.

Animals with highest risk of rabies in Midwest?

Bats and skunks. Cattle, dogs, cats, raccoon.

Define incubation period?

Time between infection and ability to transmit disease. (Rabies 10days to 6 months)

At what point is rabies infective?

When the virus travels up the peripheral nerve to the brain and salivary glands.

Signs of rabies?

-Changes in behavior. Hyper or dumb stage.


-Paralytic stage- starts w/ head excessive salivation.


-Death

How to diagnosis rabies?

Examine brain for virus using Immuno Fluorescent Antibody Test. Brain must be intact.

Prevention of rabies?

Vaccine dog and cat at 12-16 weeks and booster in 1 year.




Oral vaccine bait for wildlife.




Humans vaccine and titer every 2 years.

How long to quarantine and animal suspected of rabies?

30-60 days

What happens if a person is bitten but is vaccinated?

Prophylactic injections still needed but fewer.

How is rabies spread?

Saliva.

Rabies TYPE?

Viral

Psittacocis TYPE?

Chlamydial. Common in birds and respiratory disease in people.

Equine Encephalitis TYPE?

EEE WEE VEE Virus. Sleeping sickness in horses and mosquitos give to humans.

Ringworm TYPE?

Fungal. Direct contact.

Blastomycosis TYPE?

Fungal. Affects lungs by spores.

Brucellosis TYPE?

Fungal

Campylobacter TYPE?

Bacterial. Causes Gastrointestinal disease.

Tularemia TYPE?

Bacterial.

Cat scratch fever TYPE?

Bacterial. Causes lymphadenopathy and malaise.

Histoplasmosis TYPE?

Fungal.

Salminella TYPE?

Bacterial.

Anthrax TYPE?

Bacterial.

Cryptococcus TYPE?

Fungal.

Laraval Migrans?

Visceral and ocular migration of roundworms.


Cutaneous is migration of hookworms.

Cryptosporidiosis?

Coccidial organism transmitted via ingestion causing gasterointestional disease.

Toxoplasmosis?

Causes flu like symptoms. Birth defects too. Cats.

Giardia?

Gastrointestional disease. Contaminated water.

Lyme disease?

Deer tick. Sentinels.

Primary defender of the body?

Immune system

What does the immune system act as?

A Surveillance system.

3 Non specific INNATE Immunity?

Physical barriers


Phagocytosis


Complement

Physical barriers?

Skin, MM, Low stomach pH, self cleaning

Phagocytosis?

WBC response. Neutros and Monos.

Complement?

Enzymes that destroy invaders.

Specific (adaptive) Immunity?

Adaptive; every response is unique; second exposure to pathogen garners a much faster response by the immune system because it remembers the pathogen from previous encounters

Antigen?

Foreign material that stimulates and immune response. Antigens can be apart of a virus, abnormal cells, toxins, bacteria.

Antibody?

Proteins specific to provide protection against specific antigens.

Two types of specific immunity?

Cell mediated immunity




Humoral immune response

Cell mediated immunity?

Uses T-lymph cells. Recognize certain antigens displayed on macrophages, attach to antigen, become activated and develop into 4 T-cells.

Where are T-lymph cells made?

Thymus

What are the four T-Cells?

Killer T-Cells




Helper T-Cells




Suppressor T-Cells




Memory T-Cells

Killer T Cells?

Attach to antigenic cells and destroy. Can get out of control.

Helper T Cells?

Secrete cytokines that activate B lymphs and enhances phagocytosis.

Suppressor T Cells?

Inhhibit Killer and Helper T Cells. (Turn off system)

Memory T Cells?

Can respond more quickly to a second attack by the same antigen.

Humoral Immune Response?

Uses B-lymphs to make antibodies in cell membrane. Antibody encounters antigen and activates B-lymph which clones itself into PLASMA CELLS for more antibodies. Some clones become memory cells.

Where do B-lymphs live?

Lymph nodes

What does a negative titer mean?

No protection against it.

5 Types of antibodies?

Immunoglobins


IgM IgE


IgG IgD


IgA



IgM?

First antibody to respond and largest.

IgG?

Most common type. Used to protect bloodstream and internal tissues, trans placent)

IgA?

Secretory antibody produced in MM and milk. Give immediate response to antigens.

IgE?

Causes allergic reactions. Histamine.

First exposure?

Results in a small production of antibodies after a lag period.

Second exposure?

Shorter lag period. Higher antibody production. Antibodies in serum longer. Reminds immune system.

3 Immunological Testing Methods?

Antibody test




Antigen test




Testing methods (elisa)

Antibody test?

Tests for defense against a virus.

What does a positive antibody test mean?

Animal has been exposed to the disease or vaccinated. Antibodies against disease. Doesnt mean animal has disease.

Titer?

Antibody test which measures level of antibodies for a specific sample.

Antigen Tests?

Sees if foreign organism present. Measures antigen in body. May not show symptoms. Can use blood, feces, saliva.

What does a positive antigen test mean?

Organism is in body!!!!

Common testing methods?

ELISA


Agglutination


Immunofluorescent Antibody Test

ELISA?

Snap test. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Can look for antigen or antibody. Sample gets mixed with conjugate.

Agglutination?

Latex spheres coated with antibody or antigen.


Clumps together in positive sample.

IFA?

Immunoflurescent Antibody Test. Tests only for antigen.

3 Immunologic Diseases?

Hypersensitivity responses


Autoimmune disease


Immunodeficiency

Hypersensitivity Responses?

Mild to acute. Allergic responses. Immune system overreacts to antigen leading to signs of illness. Puritis, inflammation urticaria, anaphylaxis.

Autoimmune Disease?

Body fails to recognize normal cells and attack itself. Often attack hematological cells, joint substances, and skin.

IMHA?

Autoimmune disorder. Immune mediated hemolytic anemia.

ITP?

Autoimmune disease. Immune mediated thrombocytopenia.

IBD?

Autoimmune disease. Inflammatory bowel disease.

Immunodeficiency?

Can occur at any point. Can vary from mild to severe. Can occur spontaneously through infections.

What are the 4 types of immunity?

Passive natural immunity


Passive artificial immunity


Active natural immunity


Active artificial immunity

Passive Natural Immunity?

Colostrum (Mothers first milk) / placental transmisson. Antibodies absorbed first 24 hrs and last 12-18 weeks. Interferes with vaccines.

Examples of maternal interference?

Vaccine injected in young animal. Maternal passive antibodies. Less antibody to protect baby.

Passive Artificial Immunity?

Synthetic. Antisera (tetanus antitoxin) (snake bite serum). Serum contains active antibodies. Body does no work.

Active Natural Immunity?

Exposure to DZ. Chicken pox ex. body responds and produce antibodies.

Active Artificial Immunity?

Vaccine. Antibodies produces

MLV?

Modified Live Vaccine. A Live virus that replicates within animal to stimulate humoral immune response.

Attenuated MLV?

Weakened MLV. Virus is grown on tissue culture different from target species. EX: Canine distemper grown on Mink cells, use on DOG ONLY.

Fully Virulent MLV?

Fully pathogenic given by a route that does not cause disease but yields response.

Heterologous MLV?

Not common. Organism similar to target organism. Stimulates response but not disease. EX: human measles virus similar to K9 distemper.) Avoid maternal interference.

Recombinant MLV?

Injects unrelated organism and injects target organisms DNA into it. Doesnt cause disease.

Killed Vaccine?

Rabies. Used for HIGHLY pathogenic viruses. Often mixed with adjuvant to help attract immune system. Can cause fever or inflammation.

MLV advantages?

Strong lasting immunity.


No adjuvant needed.


Fewer doses needed.


Less chance of hypersensitivity.

MLV disadvantage?

May cause diarrhea.


May be harmful to fetus.

Killed Vaccine advantages?

Does not cause the disease to be alive.


Economical to produce.


Can be used in pregnant animals

Killed Vaccine disadvantages?

Weaker response.


Need more boosters.

How long do vaccines take to be effective?

2-4 weeks.

Vaccine side effects?

-Soreness


-Abscess


-Fever and joint pain


-Shock


-Hives and swelling


-Cause the disease

When are first vaccines boosters?

3-4 weeks