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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
forensic argument
debates about what has happened in the past.
forensic arguments rely heavily on precedents (actions or decisions in the past that influence policies or decisions in the present).
common in business, government, and academia.
EX: lawyers interrogate witnesses to establish exactly what happened at an earlier time. "Did the defendant sexually harass her employee?"
EX: controversy over Christopher Columbus. Are his expeditions to the Americas events worth celebrating, or are they unhappy chapters in human history?"
deliberative argument
debates about the future.
legislatures, congresses, and parliaments are called deliberatives bodies because they establish policies for the future.
Because what has happened in the past influences the future, deliberative judgements often rely on prior forensic arguments.
EX: Should social security be privatized?
epideictic arguments (ceremonial arguments)
Arguments about the present are often arguments about contemporary values.
EX: They tend to be heard at public occasions (inaugural addresses, sermons, eulogies, graduation speeches, and civic remarks)
Rogerian argument
based on finding common ground and establishing trust among those who disagree about issues, and on approaching audiences in nonthreatening ways.
Writers who follow Rogerian approaches seek to understand the perspectives of those with whom they disagree, looking for both/and or win/win solutions.
Bandwagon appeals
arguments that urge people to follow the same path everyone else is taking.
EX: Everyone else gets to go camping overnight without chaperones. Reply: And if everyone jumps off a bridge you will too?
attempts to persuade by asserting that a particular position is the only one conceivably acceptable within a community.
EX: patriotism
moral equivalence
suggesting that serious wrongdoings don't differ in kind from more minor offenses.
EX: all behavior of a particular sort (abusing substancs) is equally wrong. Whether they involve cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, or fatty foods.
an argument that gives a lie an honest appearance; it is a half-truth.
EX: Usually juvenile tricks of language, the kind children relish when claiming "I don't even have a nickel," knowing that they have dimes.