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14 Cards in this Set

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-Functions: Needed to make pyruvate, involved in citric acid cycle

-Food Sources: fortified corn flakes, pork, sunflower seeds, whole grains, enriched grains

-Deficiencies: Beriberi



-Functions: Transports hydrogen in ETC

-Sources: Milk, enriched grains, liver, oysters

- Deficiency: Ariboflavinosis



-Function: coenzyme, transports hydrogen in ETC

- Deficiency: Pellagra (endemic until 1941 enrichment act)

-Sources: enriched grains, protein rich foods, tryptophan an be converted to niacin


-Function: transamination & decarboxylation. Amino acid metabolization.

Sources: Protein rich foods. Easily destroyed by heat.

Toxicity: supplements can cause nerve damage above upper level

Pantothenic acid

B vitamin

-Function- part of coenzyme A, needed for metabolism of CHO, fat, protein, production of steroid hormones, cholesterol, ect.

-Sources: meat, milk, liver, peanuts


-Function: needed for DNA, RNA synthesis, transfer of single carbon units

-Sources: bound to protein in foods. Leafy greens (Foliage). Released by digestion. Activated by B12 (demethylation)

-Deficiency: Impairs cell division, protein synthesis, cleft lip/pallate, neural tube defects during pregnancy, anemia

-Toxicity: occurs with supplements


Cobalammin (contains cobalt)

-Function: Folate metabolism, TCA cycle, DNA/ RNA synthesis, maitenence of mylin sheaths around exons

-Sources: attached to protein in foods. pepsin, HCl separates intrinsic factor binds

- Deficiency: Folate deficiency, nerve degradation

Vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid

Water soluble

-Deficiency: Scurvy

-Function: antioxidant

-Forms Collagen

-Sources: citrus, bell peppers

Vitamin A

Fat soluble

-Function: part of rhodopsin, cell differentiation, gene expression, maintenance of epithelial tissue (lining of external passages and skin)

-2 forms: retinoids &caotenoids

-Deficiency: cells deteriorate

Vitamin E

Fat Soluble


-Function: antioxidant in cell membranes. might prevent heart disease.

-Source: sunflower seeds, cold processed veg oils, leafy greens. easily desstroyed by heat

Vitamin D

-Source: synthesis from cholestrol via sun exposure. occasionaly from diet.

-Function: bone growth, regulation of blood calcium, also gene expression and differentiation

-Deficiency: rickets, other bone diseases

-Toxicity: high concentrations of calcium in blood, results in damage, bone loss.

Vitamin K

-Function: blood clotting

- sources: bacteria in intestines. leafy green, veggie oils

-deficiencies: problems with blood clotting. can happen due to long term antibiotic use. excess can interfere with anticoagulation meds

needed for osteoblasts

What is a vitamin?

Organic compounds required in small amounts in the diet (less than a gram)