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14 Cards in this Set

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Thiamin

B1


-Functions: Needed to make pyruvate, involved in citric acid cycle


-Food Sources: fortified corn flakes, pork, sunflower seeds, whole grains, enriched grains


-Deficiencies: Beriberi



Riboflavin

B2


-Functions: Transports hydrogen in ETC


-Sources: Milk, enriched grains, liver, oysters


- Deficiency: Ariboflavinosis





Niacin

B3


-Function: coenzyme, transports hydrogen in ETC


- Deficiency: Pellagra (endemic until 1941 enrichment act)


-Sources: enriched grains, protein rich foods, tryptophan an be converted to niacin

B6

-Function: transamination & decarboxylation. Amino acid metabolization.


Sources: Protein rich foods. Easily destroyed by heat.


Toxicity: supplements can cause nerve damage above upper level



Pantothenic acid

B vitamin


-Function- part of coenzyme A, needed for metabolism of CHO, fat, protein, production of steroid hormones, cholesterol, ect.


-Sources: meat, milk, liver, peanuts

Folate

-Function: needed for DNA, RNA synthesis, transfer of single carbon units


-Sources: bound to protein in foods. Leafy greens (Foliage). Released by digestion. Activated by B12 (demethylation)


-Deficiency: Impairs cell division, protein synthesis, cleft lip/pallate, neural tube defects during pregnancy, anemia


-Toxicity: occurs with supplements

B12

Cobalammin (contains cobalt)


-Function: Folate metabolism, TCA cycle, DNA/ RNA synthesis, maitenence of mylin sheaths around exons


-Sources: attached to protein in foods. pepsin, HCl separates intrinsic factor binds


- Deficiency: Folate deficiency, nerve degradation

Vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid

Water soluble


-Deficiency: Scurvy


-Function: antioxidant


-Forms Collagen


-Sources: citrus, bell peppers

Vitamin A

Fat soluble

-Function: part of rhodopsin, cell differentiation, gene expression, maintenance of epithelial tissue (lining of external passages and skin)

-2 forms: retinoids &caotenoids


-Deficiency: cells deteriorate



Vitamin E

Fat Soluble


Tocopherol


-Function: antioxidant in cell membranes. might prevent heart disease.


-Source: sunflower seeds, cold processed veg oils, leafy greens. easily desstroyed by heat



Vitamin D

-Source: synthesis from cholestrol via sun exposure. occasionaly from diet.


-Function: bone growth, regulation of blood calcium, also gene expression and differentiation


-Deficiency: rickets, other bone diseases


-Toxicity: high concentrations of calcium in blood, results in damage, bone loss.



Vitamin K

-Function: blood clotting


- sources: bacteria in intestines. leafy green, veggie oils


-deficiencies: problems with blood clotting. can happen due to long term antibiotic use. excess can interfere with anticoagulation meds


needed for osteoblasts

What is a vitamin?

Organic compounds required in small amounts in the diet (less than a gram)

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