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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Which of the following statements is TRUE?



  1. When ascorbic acid becomes dehydroascorbic acid it has lost 1 electron.
  2. Antioxidant supplements have been proven superior to dietary antioxidants for reducing the risk of many diseases.
  3. Glutathione is a more effective antioxidant when it is in an oxidized state, whereas reduced glutathione is not very useful as an antioxidant.
  4. Reactive species can be formed during normal physiological processes.
  5. All reactive species in human biology are reactive oxygen species.

4. Reactive oxygen species can be formed during normal physiological processes

Which antioxidant is most effective in rapidly eliminating hydroxyl radicals prior to initiation of oxidative damage?

Vit C

Which antioxidant is most effective in terminating chain-propagation reactions in cell membranes?

Vit E

Which TWO of the following are reactive oxygen species, but do not fit the definition of a free radical?





  1. Hydrogen or lipid peroxide
  2. Singlet oxygen
  3. Peroxyl radical
  4. Superoxide anion
  5. Hydroxyl radical
  1. Hydrogen or lipid peroxide
  2. Singlet Oxygen
Respiratory burst refers to the use of which reactive oxygen species by white blood cells to destroy foreign microbes?




  1. Superoxide
  2. peroxyl
  3. Hypochlorus acid
  4. Hydroxyl radical


  1. superoxide

Which of the following is NOT a source of hydrogen peroxide production in the human body?





  1. Tissue ischemia after injury
  2. Glutathione peroxidase activation
  3. ELimination of superoxide radicals
  4. Degredation of long-chain fatty acids

2. glutathione peroxidase activation


The Fenton reaction involves the production of hydroxyl radical by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide with _______________.

Iron

Which reactive species is considered a major initiator of lipid peroxidation in the body?





  1. Hydroxyl radical
  2. Superoxide
  3. Singlet oxygen
  4. Hydrogen peroxide

1. Hydroxyl radical

Which reactive lipid species is the result of a propagation reaction between oxygen and lipid carbon-centered radicals?





  1. Lipid peroxides
  2. Additional lipid carbon-centered radicals
  3. lipid peroxyl radicals
  4. lipid alkoxyl radicals

3. Lipid Peroxyl radicals

Which THREE of the following minerals are necessary to the optimal performance of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in human tissues?



  1. Zn
  2. Mg
  3. Se
  4. Cu
  5. Fe

Zn, Mg, Cu

T/F: The reactive species scavenging function of vitamin C is limited to reducing radical species, it does not scavenge non-radical species.

False

What mineral is essential to the function of glutathione peroxidase?

Sel

What is the role of glutathione in the reaction between glutathione peroxidase and various peroxide species?





  1. Electron acceptor
  2. Hydrogen acceptor
  3. Component of enzyme protein sequence
  4. Hydrogen donor

4. Hydrogen donor (reducing agent)

Which reactive species is referred to as an "electronically excited" molecule, and is inactivated by a process called "quenching"?

Singlet Oxygen

Which B-vitamin functions as a coenzyme to regenerate oxidized glutathione?

Niacin (B3)

Which of the following statements is TRUE?



  1. In general, vitamin C is more effective in lipid environments, while vitamin E is more effective in aqueous environments.
  2. Natural and synthetic vitamin C are chemically identical and there are no known differences in their biological activities or bioavailability.
  3. An important distinction between the two fat-soluble antioxidants beta-carotene and vitamin E may be that beta-carotene functions more on the cell surface, while vitamin E functions more in the interior of a cell.
  4. The amount of vitamin C intake has little effect on vitamin C absorption.

2. Natural and synthetic Vit C are chemically identical and there's no known difference in their biological activities and availability

Which of the following is the source of hydrogen atoms for the regeneration of ascorbic acid from dehydroascorbate?





  1. Glutathione
  2. NADPH
  3. FADH
  4. Coenzyme Q
  1. Glutathione

Which of the following enzymes is required for the synthesis of vitamin C and not present in human biochemistry?





  1. Gulonolactone oxidase
  2. Lysyl hydroxylase
  3. Dehydroascorbate reductase
  4. Aldonolactonase
  5. Ascorbyl palmitase
  1. Gulonolactone oxidase

Which reaction is typical of the kind catalyzed by vitamin C?

Hydroxylation

Which of the following foods is NOT a good source of vitamin C?





  1. Broccoli
  2. Green pepper
  3. Brussels sprouts
  4. Carrots

Carrots

Based on data from the National Institutes of Health on plasma and tissue saturation, what level of daily vitamin C intake is suggested by the Linus Pauling Institute as a practical recommendation?

400 mg

Which of the following is NOT a function of vitamin C in human biology?





  1. Norepinephrine synthesis
  2. Collagen synthesis
  3. Carnitine synthesis
  4. Serotonin synthesis
  5. Cholesterol synthesis

5. Cholesterol synthesis

Which TWO minerals can be reduced by ascorbate, leading to increased capacity for generation of reactive oxygen species?





  1. Zinc
  2. Magnesium
  3. Selenium
  4. Iron
  5. Copper


  1. Iron
  2. Copper

An intervention trial found that large doses of vitamin C reduced blood levels of which toxic metal?

Lead

According to the LPI article "The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C," which of the following statements is FALSE?



  1. Mineral salts of ascorbic acid (mineral ascorbates) are buffered and therefore less acidic
  2. Bioavailability of ascorbic acid from slow-release preparations has not been found to be greater than that of plain ascorbic acid
  3. Published human research finds superior bioavailability of Ester-C compared to a standard ascorbic acid supplement
  4. The bioavailability of ascorbic acid appears equivalent whether it is in the form of powder, chewable tablets, or non-chewable tablets.

3. Published human research finds superior bioavailability of Ester-C compared to a standard ascorbic acid supplement

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin C was set to help reduce the risk of what side effect of vitamin C supplementation?



  1. Kidney stones
  2. Hemochromatosis
  3. Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  4. Rebound scurvy

3. Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea

Match the substance with the most appropriate storage characteristic. (Match the red term with blue answer- one extra answer)


Retinol, Carotenoids, Tocopherol





  1. Stored in liver, adipose, and concentrated in specific tissues
  2. Primarily stored in the liver
  3. Primarily stored in muscle
  4. Primarily stored in adipose tissue
  1. Carotenoids
  2. Retinol
  3. N/A
  4. Tocopherol

Match the characteristics with the most appropriate substance. (Match the red term with blue answer- one extra answer)


Retinol, B-Carotine, Tocopherol



  1. Most essential for differentiation of epithelial cells
  2. Effective for inhibiting both LDL oxidation AND blood clot formation
  3. Effective for both free radical quenching AND inhibiting neoplastic transformation
  1. Retinol
  2. Tocopherol
  3. B-carotine
Match the function or deficiency symptom with the correct vitamin. (Match one of the red term with blue answer- one extra answer)

Vit A, Vit E



  1. Hemolytic anemia
  2. Keratinization
  3. Xeropthalmia
  4. Night blindness
  5. Neuromuscular degeneration
  1. Vit E
  2. Vit A
  3. Vit A
  4. Vit A
  5. Vit E

Where is the primary site for conversion of provitamin A to vitamin A in the human body?

Intestinal mucosa

Three of the following digestive steps are required for normal absorption of vitamin A to occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Which one is not required?



  1. Amino acid conjugation
  2. Protein hydrolysis
  3. De-esterification
  4. Micelle formation
  1. Amino acid conjugation

Which substance does not belong to the family of carotenoids?



  1. Lutein
  2. Canthaxanthin
  3. Lycopene
  4. Alpha-carotene
  5. Tocotrienol

5. Tocotrienol

What is the form of vitamin A attached to the protein opsin in a molecule of rhodopsin?



  1. all-trans retinal
  2. 11-cis retinol
  3. all-trans retinol
  4. 11-cis retinal

4. 11-cis retinal

T/F: Vitamin A in the form of retinoic acid supports the development of cells by influencing gene expression.

True

Why is retinoic acid considered a hormone?



  1. It causes the catabolism (break down) of body proteins.
  2. It has a biologic function similar to insulin.
  3. It has receptors on the nucleus and causes a change in protein synthesis.
  4. It is synthesized in the same tissue that it affects.

3. It has receptors on the nucleus and causes a change in protein synthesis.

What is the most likely mechanism for the effect of vitamin A on the growth of epithelial tissue?





  1. Increases production of growth factors
  2. Increases numbers of receptors for growth factors
  3. Interferes with growth inhibitors

2. Increases numbers of receptors for growth factors

Which mineral deficiency interferes with vitamin A metabolism?

Zinc

In which of the following conditions is plasma retinol NOT a good reflection of vitamin A status?



  1. Stores of vitamin A are exhausted
  2. Stores of vitamin A are filled to capacity Correct
  3. Stores of vitamin A are partially depleted

3. Stores of vitamin A are partially depleted

For which group are large doses of beta-carotene not likely to be safe?

Smokers

The upper limit for a safe amount of vitamin A has been suggested to be 3000 micrograms per day. How much would this be in International Units?

10,000 IU

Vitamin A: 1 IU is the biological equivalent of 0.3 mcg retinol, or of 0.6 mcg beta-carotene.

Which of the following is not a sign of vitamin A toxicity?





  1. Headache
  2. Liver damage
  3. Elevated blood pressure
  4. Skin irritations
  5. Bone pain

Elevated Blood pressure

How many vitamers of vitamin E are there?

8 vitamers, including tocopherols and tocotienols

Alpha-tocopherol has the greatest vitamin E activity in the human body due to a selective preference for this specific vitamer in what part of vitamin E processing?

Hepatic cell production of VLDL

Which of the following foods is the richest source of dietary alpha-tocopherol?





  1. Peanuts, one ounce
  2. Soybean oil, 1 tablespoon
  3. Spinach, 1 cup raw
  4. Almonds, one ounce
  5. Sunflower oil, 1 tablespoon

4. Almonds, one ounce

The latest RDA for vitamin E is expressed in milligrams of RRR-alpha-tocopherol, but most people are more familiar with the older International Units of measurement. What is the adult RDA for vitamin E in International Units if the value is 15 mg of RRR-alpha-tocopherol?

22 IU

Vitamin E: 1 IU is the biological equivalent of 0.67 mg d-alpha-tocopherol, or 0.9 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol.

Tocopherol is distributed to the tissues through receptor-mediated uptake of which lipoprotein?

LDL

Regeneration of oxidized vitamin E requires three of the following cofactors; which one is not required?



  1. NADPH
  2. Reduced glutathione
  3. Vitamin C
  4. FADH

4. FADH

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level was set for vitamin E to prevent _____________.

Increased tendency for bleeding

Match the vitamin with the correct enzyme or coenzyme function.

Riboflavin, Biotin, Thiamin, Niacin, Pantothenic acid



  1. Carboxylases
  2. Acyl carrier protein
  3. TPP
  4. NADP/NADPH
  5. FMN/FMNH2


  1. Carboxylases - Biotin
  2. Acyl carrier protein- Pantothenic acid
  3. TPP - Thiamin
  4. NADP/NADPH- Niacin
  5. FMN/FMNH2- Riboflavin

A thiamin deficiency disorder usually associated with alcoholism is known as ____________.

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

The essential roles of thiamin in the body include (Indicate all of the correct answers):




  1. Synthesis of coenzyme A
  2. Energy transformation
  3. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH
  4. Membrane and nerve conduction

2. Energy transformation

3. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH

4. Memberane and nerve conduction

Which of the following is the best source of riboflavin?

Milk and milk products

Which of the following is NOT a role of flavoproteins in intermediary metabolism?





  1. Synthesis of an active form of folate
  2. Coenzyme for an oxidase
  3. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH
  4. Glutathione reduction

3. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH

Which of the following is NOT a role of NADPH?




  1. Cholesterol and steroid hormone synthesis
  2. Synthesis of precursors of DNA
  3. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids
  4. Oxidation of glutamate

3. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids

Which amino acids is a precursor to niacin?

Tryptophan

Side effects arising from using niacin in therapeutic amounts may include all of the following effects except which one.




  1. Headaches
  2. Increased uric acid levels
  3. Increased blood pressure
  4. Liver injury
  5. Elevated plasma glucose
  6. Heartburn

3. Increased blood pressure

T/F: Large doses of vitamin B3 as nicotinamide (niacinamide) do not possess the hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid (niacin), but also do not appear to have as high a potential for toxicity.

True

Synthesis of coenzyme A starts with the phosphorylation of which vitamin?

Pantothenoic acid (B5)

What glycoprotein found in raw egg whites may prevent biotin absorption?




  1. Mucin
  2. Hyaluronic acid
  3. Avidin
  4. Albumin

3. Avidin

What disease or condition results from an absence or insufficient activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex?

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

T/F: Subclinical biotin deficiency may develop in some pregnant women.

True

Match the B-vitamin or its derivative with the therapeutic use shown effective in some human studies.


Biotin, Riboflavin, Pantethine



  1. Blood cholesterol lowering
  2. Blood sugar lowering
  3. Migraine headache prevention
  1. Pantethine (B5)
  2. Biotin (B7)
  3. Riboflavin (B2)
The activity of erythrocyte glutathione reductase is useful for assessing the adequacy of which vitamin?

Riboflavin (B2/FAD)

The activity of erythrocyte transketolase is useful for assessing the adequacy of which vitamin?

Thiamine (B1)

Acetyl CoA carboxylase depends on which B vitamin to begin fatty acid synthesis?

Biotin (B7)

Which vitamins use the AI recommendation for adult recommendations because there is insufficient available data to establish an RDA? (Indicate all of the correct answers)





  1. Thiamin
  2. Niacin
  3. Biotin
  4. Pantothenate
  5. Riboflavin

3. Biotin (B7)

4. Panthothenate (B5)

Excretion of fluorescent orange yellow urine follows oral ingestion of which vitamin?

Riboflavin (B2)

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex depends on all of the following vitamins for its function: (list 4)

  1. B1- Thiamine
  2. B2- Riboflavin
  3. B3- Niacin
  4. B5- Pantethenate

Which of the B-vitamins can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

Biotin

Match the biological function with the required nutrient:


Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folic acid



  1. Transamination
  2. One-carbon metabolism
  3. Conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA
  4. Decarboxylation


  1. Transamination - B6
  2. One-carbon Metabolism - Folic acid
  3. Conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA - B12
  4. Decarboxylation- B6


Megaloblastic anemia is associated with a deficiency of which micronutrient(s)?

B12 and Folic Acid

Microcytic anemia is associated with a deficiency of which micronutrient(s)?

B6 (PLP, pyridoxine)

Which of the following is a potential toxic effect of excess pyridoxine?

Peripheral sensory neuropathy

Xanthurenic acid excretion following ___________ loading is a functional test used for B6.

Tryptophan

Which one of the following is NOT a reaction involving the coenzyme form of B6 (PLP)?





  1. Conversion of homocysteine into methionine
  2. Serine synthesis
  3. Synthesis of heme
  4. Formation of GABA from glutamate

1. Conversion of homocycteine into methionine

The normal digestion and absorption of cobalamin requires adequate ___1___ digestion in the stomach; the presence of 2 non-enzymatic proteins: __2___; and a receptor located in the __3___.

  1. Protein
  2. R protein and intrinsic factor
  3. ileum

Which mineral is a component of vitamin B12?

Cobalt

The primary site for storage of vitamin B12 in the body is ____________.

liver

Which of the following is TRUE?





  1. Pernicious anemia can be due to folate or B12 deficiency.
  2. Inadequate dietary intake, not inadequate absorption, is the primary cause of B12 deficiency seen in the US.
  3. The presence of anemia is a distinctly reliable and sensitive sign of vitamin B12 deficiency.
  4. Oral supplementation is an option for the treatment of pernicious anemia.

4. Oral supplementation is an option for the treatment of pernicious anemia.

Mammals are unable to synthesize folic acid, even though they can accomplish several of the necessary steps. Which one of the following steps CANNOT be accomplished by mammals?



  1. Can form pteroic acid
  2. Can synthesize glutamic acid
  3. Can synthesize pteridine
  4. Can synthesize PABA
  1. Can form pteroic acid
What vitamin deficiency can result in a tissue deficiency of active folate?

Vit B12

Folate is vitally important for dividing cells during growth and cancer because of its essential role in the synthesis of _____.

purines and pyrimidines

Active folate participates in the synthesis of which pyrimidine base?

Thymine

In the enzyme methionine synthase, vitamin B12 acts by accepting a ___1__ group from __2___ and donating this group to ___3__ to form methionine.

  1. methyl
  2. 5MTHF
  3. Homocysteine

A deficiency of B12 and/or folate can be determined by what kind of test?

Deoxyuridine suppression test

Which vitamin appears to be able to diminish the actions of steroid hormones by interfering with receptor binding?





  1. Vitamin B12
  2. Vitamin B6
  3. Folic acid
  4. None of these vitamins has such an effect

2. Vit B6

The metabolism of amino acids involving formaldehyde transfer all depend on the involvement of what vitamin?

Folic Acid

Which of the following is TRUE?





  1. Excess vitamin B6 can mask a B12 deficiency
  2. Excess vitamin B12 can mask a folic acid deficiency
  3. Excess folic acid can mask a B12 deficiency
  4. Excess vitamin B12 can mask a B6 deficiency

3. Excess folic acid can mask a B12 deficiency

Which vitamin is more easily absorbed from supplements because the food form contains glutamic acid residues that must be removed by the digestive process?

Folic Acid

Which cofactors/vitamins are involved in one of the pathways of homocysteine metabolism?

Betaine

Folic Acid

B12

Prevention of birth defects with folic acid is best accomplished by starting supplementation when?

Before conception

Prevention of cancer with optimal folate nutrition appears most promising for cancer in which tissue?





  1. Breast
  2. Prostate
  3. Colorectum
  4. Lung

3. Colorectum

Which one of the following groups does NOT have a higher risk B12 deficiency?





  1. People regularly exposed to nitrous oxide gas
  2. People using gastric acid-reducing drugs long-term
  3. People with gallbladder disease
  4. People with atrophic gastritis
  5. People over 50 years of age
  6. People with impaired pancreatic exocrine function

3. People with gallbladder disease

Which of the following is FALSE?




  1. Fortification of food with folic acid is mandated by law, but not fortification of B6 or B12.
  2. Pellagra symptoms may appear during B6 deficiency, because this vitamin is required in the process of obtaining niacin from tryptophan.
  3. The Tolerable Upper Intake level for folic acid is based on evidence of increased cancer risk.
  4. Low-dose oral contraceptives currently in use are as likely to interfere with folic acid nutrition were older, high-dose oral contraceptives.

4. Low-dose oral contraceptives currently in use are as likely to interfere with folic acid nutrition were older, high-dose oral contraceptives.

What is the criteria for a genetic difference to be called a “polymorphism”?

> 1% of the population has it

A genetic polymorphism that decreases the activity of N5,N10 methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase has been identified. This would cause _____.

Increased homocycteine concentrations

Match the vitamin D-related substance with its description.

cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, calcitriol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, calcidiol




  1. Vitamin D2 present in some plants
  2. Fully activated form of vitamin D
  3. Vitamin D3 precursor present in skin
  4. Vitamin D3 produced in the skin
  5. Most abundant form of vitamin D in the blood
  1. ergocalciferol
  2. calcitriol
  3. 7-dehydrocholesterol
  4. cholecalciferol
  5. calcidiol

All except one of the following foods may be high in vitamin D because they are often fortified? Which one is least likely to be fortified?





  1. breads
  2. milk products
  3. margarine
  4. fish products
  5. breakfast cereals

Fish products

Which two organs are essential for the normal hydroxylations that convert cholecalciferol into systemically-active vitamin D hormone?

Liver and kidney

The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate absorption and metabolism of which 2 minerals?

Calcium and Phosphorus

Place the phrases below in order to explain the response of the body to a decline in serum calcium levels. (not all options used)


  1. Increased release of PTH
  2. Decreased release of PTH
  3. Increased synthesis of calbindin
  4. Increased synthesis of 1,25-(OH)2 D3
  5. Decreased calcium absorption
  6. Increased calcium absorption
  7. Decreased bone resorption
  8. Increased calcium excretion
  9. Increased bone resorption

1, 4, 3, 6

Which of the following is not a function of calcitriol in the intestine?





  1. synthesis of calbindin
  2. modulation of gene expression
  3. activation of adenylate cyclase
  4. induction of changes in brush border composition

3. activation of adenylate cyclase

Which of the following risk factors is not associated with a vitamin D deficiency?





  1. Aging
  2. Crohn's disease
  3. Kidney disorders
  4. Antibiotic therapy

4. Antibiotic therapy

Which is not a characteristic of rickets?





  1. Curved spine
  2. Bowed legs
  3. Deformed fingers
  4. Thoracic deformities

3. Deformed fingers

What disorder is associated with insufficient serum calcium and phosphorus, and leads to defective bone mineralization with preservation of bone matrix?

Osteomalacia

T/F: Overexposure to ultraviolet radiation can result in excessive production of vitamin D in the body.

False

Dosages in excess of 10,000 IU/day of vitamin D for several months can result in which TWO events?





  1. hypercalcemia
  2. nephrolithiasis
  3. over production of endogenous cholecalciferol
  4. osteomalacia
  1. hypercalcemia
  2. nephrolithiasis

Choose the TWO answers that represent the values set by the 2010 RDA (not the 1997 DRI for Adequate Intake) for vitamin D.





  1. 20 mcg for adults over 70
  2. 15 mcg for all adults over 70
  3. 15 mcg for adults under age 71 and children over age 1
  4. 5 mcg for adults under age 51
  5. 10 mcg for adults between 51 and 70

1. 20 mcg for adults over 70

3. 15 mcg for adults under 70 and children over age 1


1 IU is the biological equivalent of 0.025mcg cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol.

In assessing the vitamin D status of an individual, which measure would you use?

circulating 25-OH cholecalciferol

Regarding vitamin K sources, which of the following is NOT true?



  1. Menaquinones are synthesized by intestinal bacteria
  2. Dietary vitamin K is primarily menaquinones
  3. Menaquinones are found in animal foods
  4. Menadione is not found in nature
  5. Phylloquinone is found in plant foods

2. Dietary vitamin K is primarily menaquinones

For what type of enzyme does vitamin K act as a cofactor?

carboxylase

Vitamin-K dependent modification of proteins such as the clotting factors affects the binding of which mineral ion by those proteins?

calcium ions

Which TWO names refer to anticoagulants that antagonize vitamin K action?





  1. Mephyton
  2. Ibuprofen
  3. Warfarin
  4. Coumadin

Warfarin and Coumadin

Which TWO of the following depend upon vitamin K for their production?



  1. osteocalcin
  2. prostaglandin
  3. F2-alpha
  4. 7-dehydrocholesterol
  5. calcitonin
  6. matrix Gla protein

osteocalcin

matrix Gla protein

Compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) set for vitamin K, how much dietary vitamin K intake was associated with reduced hip fracture in the Framingham Heart Study?

About twice the AI for adult males

What role is vitamin K most likely to play in the health of soft tissue structures?

prevention of calcification

Which one of the following population groups and clinical situations is LEAST associated with an increased risk for a vitamin K deficiency?



  1. fat malabsorption disorders
  2. chronic antibiotic treatment
  3. pregnancy
  4. newborn infants
  5. liver damage or disease

3. pregnancy

What blood disorders is associated with vitamin K deficiency?

hemorrhagic disease

T/F: None of the forms of vitamin K have toxic potential.

False

Which one of the following methods for determining vitamin K status is most likely to reflect recent intake rather than tissue status?



  1. prothrombin time
  2. undercarboxylated osteocalcin
  3. plasma phylloquinone
  4. undercarboxylated prothrombin

plasma phylloquinone