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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Lewis Hine

photographer of child labor photos

- What you see in photos has power

- Goal: To make child labor illegal

- Photography is a central tool in the struggle for social change

Ansel Adams

Blackand white landscape documentarian

Roy Stryker

economist from Columbia University who ran the Farm SecurityAdministration

- Assembled a team of photographers

-Photographed the immensity of the Depression because visuals are more than words

Paul Strand

straight” photography without manipulation


Edward Curtis

famous for photographing American Indians

-Dress up + make up on the Indians to “hype” it up ... giving a lie/fantasy

Edward Steichen

“TheFamily of Man”

-Photo of cigarette lighter becomes an object of desire


- The power of photography Advertising is not read IT’S SEEN

Life Magazine

used photos to tell stories that everyone can understand

-Had a beginning, middle, and end (photo essay) -In 1950’s Life created the vision of a good life à the ideal family = CONFORMITY

National Geographic Magazine

had pioneered colored photos (very valuable to have)

-Brought new ideas, different cultures & different beliefs // stereo types // to those who viewed Nat Geo

Color photos

valuable to have (National Geographic)

Photos: Document, Shock, Motivate & Transform`

Brownie Camera

a box camera that lasted 80 years and only costs $1)

-Made photography capable for everyone àIf you don’t document visually, no proof it happened



"straight" photography

realisticphotography without manipulation

by Paul Strand

"The Family of Man"

an exhibit photographed by Edward Steichen (publicloved/critics thought it was too simplistic)

-Presented mankind as one concept

-He celebrated the sameness and the beauty of differences


photography of Vietnam gave us intimacy with war

-Monk lit himself on fire in street

-General executing Vietnamese suspect at point blank range

- Viet. Naked girl running down road after being napalmed and burned

-Kent State girl was seen kneeling over dead body of protester gunned down by National Guard

- Life Magazine’s “One Week’s Dead” with pages and pages of faces of Americans killed in Vietnam

civil rights


child labor

Lewis Hine photographer of child labor images that movedpeople to be sick over child labor abuse.

-Hine worked to regulate child labor

-Education was needed more than work

-Photos have power to make child labor illegal

-Photography of child labor was the central too in the struggle for social change

Native Americans

photographerEdward Curtis staged, dressed up and put make up on the Indians to give a lieor fantasy about the Indian culture.

Saturday Night Fever

·Tony’s Walk (John Travolta)

·Outside/Inside editing

·Camera Angles (on his feet, CU, POV)

Citizen Kane

· Deep focus, freeze, high angles, backdrops

Psycho (original)

·Alfred Hitchcock masterpiece

·67 editing cuts during murder scene

·Soundbecomes a character

·symbols (round/oval à mouth, drain,showerhead, eye)

·CU/ Extreme CU


·In training (running)

·Montage of editing = Long Shot, Low Angle, Lighting, EstablishingShot, Blurred Focus

Shakespeare in Love

-Rimbrant effect = muted colors to look more like a painting

-Still vivid colors, but dulled down

The Natural

-Baseball (Hobbs)

-Top lighting & Camera angle = halo effect (purity)


What Dreams May Come

-Painterly effect (Van goh, Monet)

-Expressionistic color

-Very Surreal


-Black/white symbolism

-1700 special effects

-color makes them enlightened and aroused

-make up to make her look black and white again


-Red and Black

-Red scarves used differently, but for the same symbol (someone’s going to die)

-Camera angles = high/low and close ups

-Women killed their lovers/husbands = in jail

God Father
-Baptism & Murder

-Ironic Montage = total opposites

West Side Story

-Red= symbolic color (between gangs)

-See a lot of red and black

-Musical of one group of guys vs. another

Orson Welles Film Quotation

“A film is neverreally good unless the camera is an eye in the head of a poet.”--Orson Welles

Joseph M. Boggs & Dennis W. Petrie film quotation

The “visual element is the motion picture’s primary and mostpowerful means of communication…As important as the quality of the image maybe…it must not be considered so important that the purpose of the film as anartistic, unified whole is ignored. Afilm’s photographic effects should not be created for their own sake…they mustbe justified psychologically and dramatically, as well as aesthetically, asimportant means to an end, not as ends in themselves.” –Joseph M. Boggs andDennis W. Petrie

Herbert A. Lightman (Editor of American Cinematographer) film quotation

“The camera is the ‘eye’ of the motion picture. It is not merely a mechanical thing…thatrecords an image on a strip of film. Rather, it is an artistic tool—like a painter’s brush, or a sculptor’schisel. In the hands of a craftsman itbecomes the instrument through which a dramatic story can be placed onfilm.”—Herbert A. Lightman, Editor of American Cinematographer

Akira Kurosawa film quotation

“In motion pictures, both image and sound must be treatedwith special care…a motion picture stands or falls on the effective combinationof these two factors.” --Akira Kurosawa

film quotation

Cinematic sound enhances the believability of what we seevisually; sound exists to confirm the information conveyed by the visual image.

thawed frame

aneffect opposite to that of a freeze (Citizen Kane)

tracking shot

a camera movement in which the camera physically moves alongthe ground to follow action or reveal significant narrative information…sometimescalled dolly shots after the dolly or movable platform on which thecamera is sometimes mounted

color (saturated & desaturated)


cross cutting/ parallel editing

a method of editing used to establish simultaneous, ongoinglines of action in a film narrative…by rapidly cutting back and forth betweentwo or more lines of action, the editor establishes that they are happeningsimultaneously

deep focus

establishesgreat depth of field within shots…Citizen Kane uses deep-focuscomposition

soft focus

aslight blurring of focus for effect

establishing shot

atype of long shot used to establish the setting or location of a scene

fade in/ fade out

a visual transition between shots or scenes created by theeditor…the fade creates a gradual transition with distinct visualcharacteristics…a fade is visible on screen as a brief interval with nopicture…the editor fades one shot to black, and then, after a pause, fades inthe next shot


usedsimply, it means editing…but also designates scenes whose emotional impact andvisual design are achieved primarily through the editing of many brief shots…aquick, impressionistic sequence of images usually linked by dissolves, wipes,and used to convey passages of time, changes of place, or any other scenes oftransition…forms a visual poem in miniature

ironic montages

total opposites

painterly effects

createdby filmmakers who are consciously trying to imitate certain looks achieved bypainters (What Dreams May Come, Elizabeth, Shakespeare in Love)

rembrandt effect

use of a subtle, light-diffusing filter to soften focusslightly and subdue the colors so that the whole film has the quality of aRembrandt painting (Shakespeare in Love)

variety shows

the format of choice FOR DECADES

-Ed Sullivan was most popular and long-lived

news shows

Television’s influence on civil rights, Vietnam, Watergate

-Walter Cronkhite = most trusted news anchor ever

- Immediacy comes from TV news

medical shows

Visualizeand personalize health issues and increase awareness of health issues (old andnew shows)


Rootschanged the way this nation looked at itself and healed us

woman's place show

That girl (1960’s) was the first show on television toestablish women in a new, independent role

family shows

verifythe values we hold

single parent shows

BachelorFather first show on television to feature a single-parent

shows taking risks

All in the Family (1970’s) took big risks with itscontroversial content

Opening remarks by host during TV section

TV enlightens, informs & entertains

Milton Berle = Mr. Television

Tom Selleck?


The way characters are drawn

(Comic Strip visual elements)

somecomics use realistic style…others use highly stylized and funny forms

Facial Expressions

(Comic Strip visual elements)

to show feelings/emotional states ofcharacters…humor comes from exaggerated facial expressions


(Comic Strip visual elements)

•Unbrokenline…normal, unemotional speech

•Perforatedline…a whisper

•Aspiked outline…loud yelling

•Littlebubbles instead of lines…thoughts by the character

•Icicleshanging from a balloon…conceited or aloof speech

•Tinywords within a balloon…astonished/ashamed

•Zig-zaggedline…sound from a telephone/tv/computer

•Tailof a balloon outside the frame…similar to an off-camera voice

Movement Lines

(Comic Strip visual elements)

lines indicate movement and speed, and sometimes puffs ofsmoke are used to show how fast someone/something is moving.





•Briffits…littlepuffs of smoke or dirt

•Waftaroms…odorsthat float in the frame

•Plewds…sweatbeads on a character’s forehead indicating nervousness

Panels at bottom or top of frame

(Comic Strip visual elements)

usedto maintain continuity and tell readers what to expect

the setting

(Comic Strip visual elements)

providesreaders with a sense of what is going on and the mood/atmosphere.

the action

(Comic Strip visual elements)

eachframe is equivalent to a frame in a film, except dialogue is shown in the comicstrip, thoughts are revealed, and narration is provided through the printedword


(Comic Strip visual elements)

Letter size and thickness helps to emphasize or subordinatewords either in the mind or out loud


(Comic Strip visual elements)

evoke perceptualresponses

·narrowpanel-creates a sense ofconfinement

·wideframe- suggests a space to move

·rectangularpanels with straight borders- indicate present tense

·wavyor scalloped borders- indicate past tense

·jaggededged frames- indicate sound oremotionally explosive action

·cloud-likeframes- indicate thought

·characterbursting through the frame- createsthe illusion of power or threat

Characteristics of comic strips

1) continuing characters

2) frames that show the action

3) dialogue in balloons


(Visual elements of cartoons)

funnydrawings…feet are big, noses are elongated, bodies are large relative to sizeof head, ears stick out, etc.


(Visual elements of cartoons)

aform of portraiture in which a character’s likeness is preserved but greatliberties/alterations are taken with the face (often used as ridicule inpolitical cartoons)


(Visual elements of cartoons)

charactersmisunderstand gestures or make other mistakes that have some visual element tothem (dog begging in front of a statue that seems to be holding something toeat)

Visual Puns

(Visual elements of cartoons)

takinga linguistic pun and generate visual puns to accompany it

Comic Illustration

(Visual elements of cartoons)

adrawing comments on or relates to something in the text/words in a funnyway

Humorous Allusions

(Visual elements of cartoons)


(apolitician shown as a would-be Superman or Greek god, except the drawing pokesfun at the person who is caricatured)

Characteristics of Cartoons

1. Usually only one frame

2. doesn’t have continuous characters

3. uses captions underneath the frame to make its point

4. Cartoons often rely on information known to readers…striking a responsive chord…making readers see something they didn’t see before, or see something in a different light.

5. Can provide information in amusing andnon-threatening manner

Cartoon/Comic Strip History

•WilhemBush was the founder of modern comic strips with his Max & Moritz thatwas first published in 1865

•BenjaminFranklin was the founder of American political cartooning