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99 Cards in this Set

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Listen to sounds made by internal organs with a stethoscope, especially the heart and lungs

Body-Condition Score

Numeric assessment of the patient's weight compared with the ideal body weight.


Intestinal noises audible with or without a stethoscope, caused by gas moving through the intestinal tract.


Weight loss, loss of muscle mass, and general debilitation that may accompany chronic diseases.

Cardiac Output (CO)

Total blood flow from the heart per unit time.


Large-molecular-weight plasma proteins that provide oncotic pressure.


In a sleeplike state. Unresponsive to all stimuli including pain.

Consent Form

A form signed by the client confirming that he or she has been told about and understands the nature of the procedure to be performed, including the risks involved.

Constant Rate Infusion (CRI)

Slow continuous administration of a drug at a rate sufficient to achieve the desired effect.


Fluids that contain water and small-molecular-weight solutes (such as NaCl) and that pass freely through vascular endothelium


Blue discoloration of the mucous membranes.

Dead Space

The breathing passages and tubes that convey fresh oxygen from the source to the alveoli, but in which no gas exchange can occur.


Lacking strength; weak.


Difficult or labored breathing.


Large bruises. Discolorations of the skin or mucous membranes caused by leakage of blood into the tissues.

Extra-label Drug Use

The use of an approved drug in a manner that is not in accordance with the approved label directions.

Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus

A dangerous gastrointestinal condition, occuring primarily in deep-chested large breed dogs, in which the stomach swells with air and twists on its long axis, leading to shock, loss blood supply, and other serious consequences.


A constant state within the body created and maintained by normal physiologic processes.


Elevated carbon dioxide levels in the blood.


Low blood pressure.


Low body temperature.


Low blood oxygen level.


Low tissue oxygen level.


Intestinal obstruction caused by inhibition of bowel motility; also referred to as gastrointestinal stasis.


Force of heart muscle contraction.


Possessing gonads. Not spayed or castrated.


Depressed but able to be aroused with minimal difficulty.

Level of Consciousness

The patient's responsiveness to stimuli. How easily the patient can be aroused. Often used to assess brain function.

Minimum Patient Database

A compilation of pertinent information from the patient history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Used to diagnose and manage a case.


Constriction of the pupil of the eye.


Near death.


Depressed and unable to be fully aroused.

Oncotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure provided by large-molecular-weight colloids such as albumin.


A measurement of the number of dissolved solute particles per unit water in body fluids. Usually expressed as osmoles or milliosmoles per liter of water.

Osmotic Pressure

The pressure required to prevent water flow through a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.


Small or pinpoint purple discolorations of the skin or mucous membrane resulting from hemorrhage. Smaller than purpura.

Physical Status Classification

A graded assessment of a patient's physical condition. Used to plan patient management prior to administering anesthetics and to gauge patient risk.


Purple discolorations of the skin or mucous membrane caused by hemorrhage. Larger than petechia.


Flow of stomach contents into the esophagus and mouth unaccompanied by retching.

Reproductive Status

Whether or not the patient has been spayed or castrated. If intact, whether or not the patient is being used for breeding. In the case of female patients, whether pregnant or not.


The species, breed, age, sex, and reproductive status of a patient.


Separation of dead tissue from surrounding live tissue in a wound. Often used in reference to tissue death and loss secondary to drug-induced damage.


Atom or molecule dissolved in body water.


Noisy breathing caused by turbulent air flow in the upper airways.


In a sleeplike state. Can be aroused only with a painful stimulus.


Fainting episodes caused by brain hypoxia.


Low platelet count.


Dilation of the blood vessels; the opposite of vasoconstriction


Drugs that damage tissues if injected perivascularly.

Veterinarian-In-Charge (VIC)

The veterinarian responsible for the management and welfare of a particular patient.

More sensitive to opioids than dogs and ruminants. Therefore some of these agents must be used with caution, at lower doses or not at all in these species.

Horses & Cats

Require a lower dose of lidocaine but are more resistant to the effects of phenothiazine tranquilizers than dogs.


Tend to have rougher recoveries from inhalant anesthetics than other species.


The use of anticholinergics should be avoided in these species, as it can make their saliva thck and ropy, which can lead to airway occlusion.


May regurgitate at any point during anesthesia, and the anesthetist should take steps to avoid aspiration.


More sensitive to xylazine, requiring about one tenth the dose of horses.


____ can tolerate the administration of dissociative agents alone, whereas ____ may experience seizure-like activity unless the dissociative is combined with another agent.

Cats; Dogs

Prone to respiratory depression and dependent atelactasis and thus often require ventilatory support.

Large animals

May fracture limbs during anesthetic recovery and thus require special attention during the recovery period.


Prone to hypoxemia and hypercarbia caused by increased mechanical dead space.

Cats, small dogs, and small animal pediatric patients

Prone to airway blockage because of development of excess airway secretions.

Cats and ruminants

Prone to bloat


Must be managed very differently than common domestic species. The technician should consult appropriate references and the veterinarian before administering anesthetics to these animals.

Exotic animals such as birds and reptiles

Normal Vital Signs: Dog

Temp: 100-102.5F

HR: 60-180bpm

Heart Rhythm: NSR or SA

RR: 10-30 (panting is normal)

Normal Vital Signs: Cat

Temp: 100-102.5F

HR: 120-240bpm

Heart Rhythm: NSR

RR: 15-30

Normal Vital Signs: Horse

Temp: 99-100.5F

HR: 30-45bpm

Heart Rhythm: NSR, SA, first- or second- degree AV block

RR: 8-20

Normal Vital Signs: Cow

Temp: 100-102.5F

HR: 60-80bpm

Heart Rhythm: NSR, SA

RR: 8-20

Normal Vital Signs: Sheep/Goat

Temp: 102-104F

HR: 60-90bpm

Heart Rhythm: NSR, SA

RR: 16-24

Physical Signs Associated with Dehydration: <5%

Not detectable

Physical Signs Associated with Dehydration: 5%-6%

Mild loss of skin elasticity

Physical Signs Associated with Dehydration: 6%-8%

Definite loss of skin elasticity

May have dry mucous membranes

May have depressed globes within orbits

Physical Signs Associated with Dehydration: 8%-10%

Persistent skin tent with slow return because of loss of skin elasticity

Physical Signs Associated with Dehydration: 10%-12%

Persistent skin tent because of loss of skin elasticity

Depressed globes within orbits

Dry mucous membranes

Signs of perfusion deficits(CRT >2 sec, tachycardia)

Physical Signs Associated with Dehydration: 12%-15%

Signs of shock


Fasting Recommendations: Dog

Food: 8-12 hours

Water 2-4 hours

Fasting Recommendations: Cat

Food: 8-12 hours

Water: 2-4 hours

Fasting Recommendations: Horse

Food: 8-12 hours

Water: 0-2 hours

Fasting Recommendations: Cattle

Food: 24-48 hours

Water: 8-12 hours

Fasting Recommendations: Small Ruminants

Food: 12-18 hours

Water: 8-12 hours

Fasting Recommendations: Neonatal and pediatric patients (<8 weeks old)

Food: none

Water: none

Common Crystalloid Fluids

0.9% NaCl

Lactated Ringer's solution

Plasma-Lyte R

Plasma-Lyte A


Isolyte S

Normosol-M w/5% Dextrose

Plasma-Lyte 56 w/5% Dextrose

5% Dextrose

3% NaCl

5% NaCl

ASA Physical Status Classification: P1

Risk: Minimal

Criteria: Normal, healthy patient

Rep. Conditions: Patients undergoing elective procedures (ovariohysterectomy, castration, or declaw)

ASA Physical Status Classification: P2

Risk: Low

Criteria: Patient with mild systemic disease

Rep. Conditions: Neonatal, geriatric, or obese patients; mild dehydration; skin tumor removal

ASA Physical Status Classification: P3

Risk: Moderate

Criteria: Patient with severe systemic disease

Rep. Conditions: Anemia; moderate dehydration; compensated major organ disease

ASA Physical Status Classification: P4

Risk: High

Criteria: Patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life

Rep. Conditions: Ruptured bladder; Internal hemorrhage; pneumothorax; pyometra

ASA Physical Status Classification: P5

Risk: Extreme

Criteria: Moribund patient that is not expected to survive without the operation

Rep. Conditions: Severe head trauma; pulmonary embolus; gastric dilatation-volvulus; end-stage major organ failure

Sensitive to barbiturates (e.g., thiopental sodium) because of their relative lack of body fat and slow metabolism of these agents compared with other breeds. Consequently, these drugs must be used cautiously or not at all in these patients

Sighthounds such as Greyhounds and Salukis

More sensitive to acepromazine than other breeds.

Boxers and giant breeds

More resistant to acepromazine than other breeds.


Difficult to intubate and must be watched closely to ensure a patent airway before, during, and after any anesthetic procedure.

Brachycephalic animals

Members of these breeds often require the use of smaller endotracheal tubes than most other breeds.

Brachycephalic animals

Typically sensitive to sedatives in the same way that giant breed dogs are. They are also more likely to experience complications during recovery.

Draft horses

Increase the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias when given with cyclohexamines, xylazine, barbiturates, and halothane

Sympathomimetics such as epinephrine

May predispose patients to cardiac arrhythmias and excessive responses to anticholinergics and central nervous system (CNS) depressants

Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and clomipramine

May decrease biotransformation of barbiturate anesthetics, leading to significantly prolonged recovery, and may prolong the action of propofol and ketamine.

The antibiotic chloramphenicol

May increase the effects of morphine and other opioids when given within 14 days of one another.

Some monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as amitraz and selegiline

Can increase CNS and respiratory depression when given with opioids and other anesthetic agents that depress these body systems.

Some antihistamines

Blades that fit on a No. 3 scalpel handle


Blades that fit on a No. 4 scalpel handle