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47 Cards in this Set

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Pathogenesis meaning?

Mechanism of disease development and sequence of events occurring following exposure to the inciting agent/event

Morphological change vs. aetiologic diagnosis.

Morphological-> what can be seen from lesions and changes in tissues


Aetiologic-> specifically identifying the pathogen

Key features of taking a sample for histopathology?

1. Fix in 10x formalin


2. Fit in an adequate container (no narrow neck)



Stains for fat?

Oil red O stains fat red

Stain for glycogen?

PAS Periodic acid schiff (pink)

Stain for fibrous tissue?

Massons Trichrome stains Green

Stain for haemosiderin?

Perls Prussian Blue.

Why do we use immunohistochemical stains?

For difficult to see pathogens like viruses or the source of a tumor.

Basement membrane stain?

Jones stain

Haemosiderin

Iron storage complex in cells

Hypoplasia

Incomplete or underdevelopment of an organ/tissue

Aplasia

Organ doesn't develop at all, only rudimentary tissue present.

Agenesis

Failure of any development due to lack of embryronic primordial tissue

Hypertrophy

Increase in size of cells resulting in an increase in organ size.

Hyperplasia

Increase in no. of cells

Metaplasia

One adult cell type replaced by another

Dysplasia

Alteration in the size, shape organization of a tissue

What often leads to cellular swelling?

Hypoxia.


Drop in ATP-> switch to anaerobic metabolism-> depletion of glycogen accumulation of lactate and inorganic phosphate--> leads to inhibition of sodium/potassium pump resulting in water moving in

Name for cellular swelling?

Hydropic degeneration

What happens as a result of ballooning degeneration?

Either cell death if the noxious stimuli is not removed or recovery.

What occurs when cell swelling happens?

Vacuoles form in cytoplasm, ballooning degeneration. These do not stain.

Onco meaning

Swelling

What is necrosis associated with?

Raised calcium levels

Coagulative necrosis

Basic cell outlines preserved due to delayed proteolysis usually acute

Caseous Necrosis

Cheesey friable appearance. Chronic lesion. May develop dystrophic calcification

Liquefactive Necrosis

Cavity filled with liquefied debris.


Abscess

Gangrenous Necrosis

Follows on from some forms of coagulative necrosis may be moist, gas, dry.

Fat Necrosis

Specific necrosis of fat e.g. pancreatic fat necrosis

Karyo means?

Nucleus

Karyorrhexis

Nucleus splits into lots of pieces

Karyolysis

Lysis of the nucleus and it fades

Pyknosis

Nuclei small, shrunken and dark staining

Features of necrosis?

Cells cytoplasm stains more eosinophillic

Features of apoptosis?

Cells shrink


Condensation of chromatin


fragmentation of cytoplasm and budding

Lipodosis


Organ susceptible

Accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid, liver, muscles, heart, kidney.


Liver as central to lipid metabolism



What are the major causes of hepatic lipidosis

Excessive FFA into liver with increased fat mobilisation.


Toxic damage affecting metabolism of fatty acids and triglycerides.

What has occurred here?

What has occurred here?

Lipidosis

What leads to accumulation of glycogen?

Corticosteroid therapy


Diabetes Mellitus


Glycogen storage disease (Polysaccaride storage myopathy in the horse)

What is dystrophic calcification?

Serum conc of calcium normal, calcium deposited in tissue that is dead or dying due to cellular damage, interfering with the cells ability to regulate calcium levels.

Metastatic calcification means?

Result of hypercalcaemia, reflected in damage to organelles


Eg. Vit D Toxicity


Renal failure associated with malignancy.

Features of suppurative/ purulent discharge?

Many neutrophils dead/alive usually bacterial.

If a suppurative/purulent discharge is walled off what occurs?

Abscess

Hollow viscus filled with pus?

Empyema

Fibrinous exudate features?

Thin eosinophillic meshwork which coagulates, yellow. Is acute

How does fibrinous exudate form?

Vascular permeability--> fibrinogen leaks out and is acted upon by thrombin to form fibrin

Serous exudate features?

Occurs in early inflammation e.g. blisters

Mucous/ catarrhal features?

Hypersecretion by goblet cells in Resp tract and GIT.