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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous System
is the body's control center
Central Nervous System (CNS)
the brain, spinal cord, and their associated structures
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
nerves traveling from the brain or spinal cord to target organs and back
Voluntary (Somatic)
carries out concious activities (walking eating etc)
Involuntary (Autonomic)
performs activites that do not require concious thought (breathing, heart rate, blood pressure)
Neuron (Nerve Cell)
basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system.Carry signals to various areas of the body.
Sensory Neuron
carries signals of touch, taste, etc to the brain.
Motor Neurons
carry instructions from the brain to the muscles causing them to move.
carry signals between neurons
Cell Body
central portion of the neuron where the neucleus is located
the cytoplasm within the cell body.
cylindrical projection extending from the cell body usually opposite from the dendrites. transmits signals from the cell body to other neurons or to target organs.
highly branched cell receptors that sense the environment or recieve signals from other neurons.
Synaptic Knob
disk shaped bulb at the end of an axon
the junction of the synaptic knobs of one neuron with the dendrites or cell body of the adjacent neuron.
Schwann Cells
surround the axons and dendrites and provide structural and metabolic support to the neurons.
Myelin Sheath
made up by the Schwann cells as a protective covering over the axon to improve transmission speed of the electric impulse through the axon.
Node of Ranvier
where the myelin sheath thins.
non-mylelinated neurons
are not wrapped in a myelin sheath.
Membrane Potential
difference between the electrical charges on either side of the neuron cell membrane.
Selectively Permeable
some ions can come in and some cannot.
Active Transport
acheived by molecules embedded on the cell membrane.
Sodium-potassium Pump
molecules that are embedded in the cell membrane. Transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell.
electrical potential
loss of electrical potential between the two sides of the membrane
when potassium quickly diffuses across the channel
action potential
the process of depolarization and repolarization
saltatory conduction
the method at which electrical signals travel along myelinated axons
contents of the synaptic vesicles which get released into the synaptic cleft.
gray matter
CNS tissue, composed of aggregates of brain neuron cell bodies.
white matter
CNS tissue, composed of axons and dendrites of brain neurons.
external coverings (connective tissue)
Pia Mater
layer of the meninges that covers the surface of the brain or spinal cord tissue
the middle layer of the meninges
Dura Mater
the outermost layer of the meninges
subdural space
space that lies between the arachnoid and the dura mater which is filled with a minute amount of fluid under normal conditions.
epidural space
space that lies between the dura and the vertebrae in the spinal cord and is filled with fibrous tissue fat tissue and veins.
Cerebrum (cerebral cortex)
shaped like a half sphere, comprises the bulk of the brain.
roughly spherical bundle of brain tissue with a very convoluted surface. Maintains balance and coordination.
acts as a passageway between the brain stem and the cerebrum. Has three major components, thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary.
one of the major components of the diencephalon.
one of the major components of the diencephalon.
one of the major components of the diencephalon.
Brain Stem
forms the connection between the brain and the spinal cord and is composed of three anatomic areas. Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
spinal nerves
branch away from the spinal cord at regular intervals. Part of the PNS. Generally exit from the spinal cord in the spaces between the vertebrae.
Cranial Nerves
located in or near the head, most of them enter or exit the brain stem.
sensory pathway
carries signals regarding touch, pain, temperature, stretch and so on to the CNS.
Motor Pathway
carries signals from the CNS to muscles.
dorsal root ganglion
a cluster of sensory neuron cell bodies that lie next to the spinal cord.
brachial plexus
medial to the scapula on each side of the body, controls the thoracic limbs.
axillary nerve
exits the brachial plexus and supplies the muscles that flex the shoulder and the skin over the cranial surface of the elbow.
radial nerve
is the larges brachial plexus nerve and supplies the lateral surface of the humerous and the cranial-lateral surface of the foreleg and foot.
median nerve
exits the brachial plexus and supplies the medial surface of the foreleg and the palmar surface of the foot.
ulnar nerve
exits the brachial plexus and supplies the caudal surface of the foreleg and palmar surface of the foot. (overlapping with the median nerve)
lumbosacral plexus
gives nerve supply to the pelvic limbs and has three major nerves, femoral, obturator, and ischiatic.
femoral nerve
comes from the lumbosacral plexus and supplies the cranial muscles of the femur and sensory nerves to the medial surface of the thigh and foreleg.
obturator nerve
comes from the lumbosacral plexus and supplies primarily the muscles of the medial thigh.
ischiatic nerve (sciatic)
the larges lumbosacral nerve, passes over the hip joint and travels down the caudal-lateral surface of the thigh supplying the caudal thigh muscles.
olfactory nerve
cranial nerve that carries signals to the brain regarding the sense of smell.
optic nerve
cranial nerve that originates in the retina of the eye and carries visual signals to the brain from the eye.
oculomotor nerve
cranial nerve that controls the movement of the eye and pupil.
trochlear nerve
fourth cranial nerve that carries nerve fibers to a single muscle around the eye that causes the eye to rotate medially.
trigeminal nerve
largest cranial nerve, carries signals to the muscles involved with chewing.
abducent nerve
rotates the eye laterally or retract the eyeball deeper into the socket.
facial nerve
performs motor functions involving facial muscles controlling facial expressions, muscles of the eye, tear glands, some of the salivary glands, and nasal glands and tongue.
vestibulocochlear nerve
carries signals regarding hearing and motion and balance.
glossopharyngeal nerve
controls the muscles of the soft palate and pharynx, and secretion from some of the salvary glands.
vagus nerve
connect organs within the thorax and abdomen, and control the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and esophagus.
spinal accessory nerve
carries only motor nerves that control certain muscles of the neck and thoracic limbs.
hypoglossal nerve
controls muscles of the tounge and some muscles of the neck.
motor neuclei
located in the cerebral cortex the basal ganglia and the brain stem. Place where signals are initiated to move the body.
primary motor cortex
signals travel from here to the spinal cord segment that sends out spinal nerves to the muscle of interest
premotor area
a motor area in the cortex
supplied with nerves
secreted by the adrenal medulla
collection of neuron cell bodies
Sulcus (sulci)
indentation in the brain tissue
raised tissue between the indentations in the brain.