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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

what are the standard projections of an abdominal radiograph?


a) right lateral


b) DV


c) VD


d) all of the above


e) a & c)

right lateral and VD

what are the factors you need to evaluate when examining an abdominal xray?


a) size


b) margin


c) opacity


d) location

size, margin, opacity

what do these streaks on the kidney indicate?

what do these streaks on the kidney indicate?

mineralization

from most to least dense:


a) metal, bone, soft tissue, fat, gas


b) metal, bone, fat, soft tissue, gas


c) metal, bone, fat, water, gas


d) bone, metal, water, fat, gas



a) metal, bone, soft tissue, fat, gas

which settings highlights soft tissue and fat?


a) high kVp and mAs


b) low kVp and mAs


c) low kVp and high mAs


d) high kVp and low mAs

c) low kVp and high mAs

what are the abdominal boundaries on a radiograph?


a) liver, ventral spleen, spine


b) diaphragm, body wall, spine


c) diaphragm, spleen, spine


d) liver, body wall, spine

b) diaphragm, body wall, spine

T/F: the crus on the recumbent side is often pushed caudally

false


it's often pushed cranially

which crus of the diaphragm is the fundus associated with?


a) Left crus


b) right crus

a) left

which crus of the diaphragm is the CVC associated with?
a) Left crus
b) right crus

b) right

when would the body wall in a lateral radiograph be concave?
a) excessive fat
b) deep chested dog
c) thin dogs
d) effusion

b and c


deep chested and thin dogs

when would the body wall in a lateral radiograph be distended?


a) excessive fat


b) deep chested dog


c) thin dogs


d) effusion

a and d
excessive fat and effusion

what abnormality is this abdominal x-ray indicative of?

what abnormality is this abdominal x-ray indicative of?

ruptured body wall

best position to evaluate serosal surface of abdomen is:


a) lateral projection


b) VD


c) DV


d) all of the above

a) lateral projection

young healthy animals have ____ peritoneal detail because ________
a) excellent; lack of fat
b) poor; lack of fat
c) poor; excess fat
d) poor; excess skin
b) poor; lack of fat

if the animal was not young, why else would an animal have poor peritoneal detail?
a) too thin
b) peritoneal effusion
c) body wall rupture
d) mass
e) all of the above

a, b, d


too thin, peritoneal effusion, and a mass

what are causes for increased peritoneal detail?


a) too thin


b) peritoneal effusion


c) body wall rupture


d) air


e) all of the above

d) air

what positional radiographs increase sensitivity for free gas?


a) upright study


b) cross table study


c) lateral projection study


d) DV/VD study


e) a and b


f) c and d

e) a and b


upright and cross table study

this mottled appearance in an abdomen x-ray can indicate what disease process?

this mottled appearance in an abdomen x-ray can indicate what disease process?

peritonitis or diffuse cancer

pneumoperitoneum causes


a) overall whiteness


b) overall blackness


c) decreased detail


d) increased detail

overall blackness and increased detail

overall blackness and increased detail

which mammal is the pylorus located along the midline?


a) cat


b) dog


c) horse


d) mouse

a) cat

from top left going clockwise, which positions are these gas distributions association with?

from top left going clockwise, which positions are these gas distributions association with?

top left: DV (fundus)


top right: VD (body)


bottom right: L lat (pylorus)


bottom left: R lat (fundus)

____ in the stomach makes rugal folds visible


a) gas


b) food


c) liquid


b) mass

a) gas

a normal stomach width should be less than:


a) 5 intercostal spaces


b) 4 intercostal spaces


c) 3 intercostal spaces


d) 2 intercostal spaces

c) 3 intercostal spaces

this x-ray is most consistent with:
a) gastric dilation
b) gastric torsion
c) volvulus
d) abdominal mass

this x-ray is most consistent with:


a) gastric dilation


b) gastric torsion


c) volvulus


d) abdominal mass

a) dilation




note that although enlarged, fundus is still on L and pylorus on R

this x-ray is most consistent with:
a) gastric dilation
b) gastric torsion
c) volvulus
d) abdominal mass

this x-ray is most consistent with:


a) gastric dilation


b) gastric torsion


c) volvulus


d) abdominal mass

b) torsion






note that this is in R lateral, thus gas SHOULD be in fundus, but it's in pylorus. thus this indicates malposition (pylorus displace dorsally, while fundus is ventral and filled with fluid)

what is this "shelf" shown in the abdomen most indicative of?
a) gastric dilation
b) gastric torsion
c) volvulus
d) abdominal mass

what is this "shelf" shown in the abdomen most indicative of?


a) gastric dilation


b) gastric torsion


c) volvulus


d) abdominal mass

b) gastric torsion




pylorus is dorsal to shelf, fundus is ventral (thus malpositioned)

A stomach with outflow obstruction is


a) fluid filled


b) gas filled


c) gas and fluid filled


d) none of the above

a) fluid filled

a normal SI width should be:


a) less than 2 ribs


b) greater than 2 ribs


c) less than the height of a vertebral body


d) greater than the height of a vertebral body

a and c


less than 2 ribs or height of vertebral body

in a VD orientation, SI loops should be more located on:


a) right side


b) left side


c) along the midline


d) entire width of abdomen

a) right side

a generalized enlargement of the SI means:


a) mechanical obstruction


b) functional obstruction


c) both


d) neither

b) functional obstruction (i.e. ileus or metabolic dz)

a focal enlargement of the SI means:


a) mechanical obstruction


b) functional obstruction


c) both


d) neither

a) mechanical obstruction

mild enlargement of SI is:


a) <1 rib width


b) 1-2 rib width


c) 2-4 rib width


d) > 4 rib width

c) 2-4 rib width

marked enlargement of SI is:


a) <1 rib width


b) 1-2 rib width


c) 2-4 rib width


d) > 4 rib width

d) > 4 rib widths

what can cause this plication of the SI?

what can cause this plication of the SI?

linear foreign body

what can cause these crescent/paisley shapes shown in this radiograph?

what can cause these crescent/paisley shapes shown in this radiograph?

small gas bubbles

T/F: it is normal to see a descending colon to deviate to the right

true

what type of colonic obstruction is common in cats?

functional obstruction

intussusception is


a) proximal intestine telescopes into distal


b) distal intestine telescopes into proximal


c) proximal and distal telescope into e/o


d) any of the above

a) proximal telescope into distal

T/F: intussusception is easy to see on x-rays

false, it's difficult

the borders of the liver are:


a) diaphragm, stomach, falciform fat


b) diaphragm, stomach, body wall


c) stomach, duodenum, falciform fat


d)

a) diaphragm, stomach, falciform fat

which is NOT true about the criteria of normal liver size:
a) it should not extend beyond costal arch
b) sharp triangular margin
c) "normal" distance b/w stomach and diaphragm
d) gastric axis should be in triangle (perpendicular to spine and base is parallel to stomach)
e) gastric axis should be parallel to spine on VD
e)
gastric axis should be perpendicular not parallel on a VD

in hepatomegaly, gastric axis is rotated:


a) cranially


b) caudally


c) neither

b) caudally

in microhepatica, gastric axis is rotated:


a) cranially


b) caudally


c) neither

a) cranially

younger animals have ___ liver in proportion to their body size


a) smaller


b) larger


c) rounder


d) square-like

b) larger

deep chested dogs APPEAR to have a


a) small liver


b) large liver


c) mishapened liver


d) round liver

a) small liver

why do cats' livers APPEAR small?

b/c they have A LOT of falciform fat on the ventral border

what do changes in hepatic opacity indicate?

hepatic disease

which of the following statements about the spleen is NOT true:


a) the proximal extremity of spleen is caudal to fundus


b) distal extremity is immobile


c) a spleen located on only left side of body can be normal


d) a spleen traversing along width of body can be normal


e) cat spleen is smaller than dog's, so that caudal part is not normally seen in lateral projection

b)


distal extremity IS mobile

which type of enlargement distorts the contour of the spleen:


a) focal splenomegaly


b) generalized splenomegaly

a) focal

the image on the L is most indicative of what spleen abnormality? how about the image on the R?

the image on the L is most indicative of what spleen abnormality? how about the image on the R?

L: generalized splenomegaly


R: focal splenomegaly

which is NOT true about the pancreas:


a) it is not normally seen in a radiograph


b) it's bordered by pylorus, duodenum, and transverse colon


c) it's located in the gastroduodenal angle


d) even if there's severe enlargement, it is still not seen

d) severe enlargement is not visible




it IS visible!

where does pancreatic enlargement cause poor detail?


a) entire abdomen


b) cranial abdomen


c) ventral abdomen


d) caudal abdomen

b) cranial abdomen