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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
manifestations of hypercalcemia
severe constipation, anorexia, weakness, neuro abdnormalities
acid-base status and tonic clonic
lactic acidosis that resolves in 60-90 minutes post seizure;
repeat the labs in 2 hours to reassess
lupus anticoag
= antiphospholipid anitbody
artefectually prolongs PTT
+RVV test
brain death
absent CN reflexes, fixed/dilated pupils, no spont breaths

no medical causes that can mimic brain death, temp > 32C, and must be agreed upon by 2 docs
immunity needed to clear molluscum contagiosum
cellular immunity
what does an ateriovenous fistula do to circulation
cardiac preload is increased
will lead to high outpt failure as oxygen demands cannot be met
Charcot's joint
damage to joints from repeated joint trauma, seen in diabetics due loss of nerve sensation

also called neurogenic arthopathy

will occur in weight bearing joints and will show as deformity, DJD, loose bodies, and osteophytes on imaging
complicated effusion definition
complicated effusion listed as pH < 7.2, glucose < 60, or positive Gram stain or culture; complicated require chest tube and drainage
MCC of foot drop
neuropathy, L5 radiculopathy, and traumatic damage
pica for ice
called pagophagia, and is often seen in pt with Fe def anemia
kidney disease seen in pt with active HBV ifx
poolyarteritis nodosa, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and membranous glomerulonephritis
1st line treatment in OA
s/s of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
hyperviscosity do to excess IgM which will show as a spike on the SPE, increased spleen, liver, and LNs, tiredness, HA, neuropathies
what to do with newly dx Lupus pt
renal biopsy
SLE renal disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, up to 40-75% of pts
ways that cancer can cause hypercalcemia
nonmetastatic tumors via PTHrP
metastatic solid tumors via cytokines
Hodgkin's via calcitrol
drugs used in stress testing when exercise is not an option
dobutamine or dipyridamole
Somogyi effect in diabetics
hyperglycemia in the early morning from bedtime insulin causing excess counterregulatory hormones overnight
treatment of Tourettes
typical antipsychotics like haldol or pimozide
Hawthorne effect
when the study pop changes outcomes since they know they are being studied
treatment of Paget's disease of bone
only treat if symptomatic
use Bisphosphonates
how to treat acute renal transplant rejection
high dose IV steroids
triad of Meniere's disease
dizziness, hearing loss, and tinnitus
what electrolyte is bad prognostic factor in CHF
hyponatremia = high level of the RAAS system attempting to compensatin for low CO
renal complication seen in Hodgkin's lymphoma
minimal change disease
s/s of glucagonma
necrolytic migratory erythema, diarrhea, hyperglycemia
Gilbert's vs Crigler Najjar (check)
Gilbert's is symptomatic
Crigler Najjar 1: bili<20,
Crigler Najjar 2: v. high bili, severe sx
treatment of cancer induced anorexia
progestins like medasterol (megase)
effect of current or previous dx of anorexia on preg
increased risk for miscarriage, premie, small for gest age, hyperemesis gravidarum, postpartum depression
suspect in pt with GI issues followed by triad of periorbital edema, myositis, and eosinophilia

can also have splinter and retinal hemorrhages
an antimitotic agent leading to cell death, used in condylomata acumiata caused by HPV
treatment of HPV warts
chemical agents: 5-FU, podophyllin

immune therapy: imiquimod, interferon alpha

surgery: cyro, laser, excisional
SAAG of 1.1 or greater shows transudative process consistent with portal HTN
isoniazid and the liver
liver injury with histology that looks like viral hepatitis
NOT dose dependent
what causes anion gap metabolic acidosis with an osmolar gap
ethylene glycol, methanol, and ethanol intox
Duke's criteria for infective endocarditis
must have 2 major, one major and 3 minor, or 5 minor

major: 2 positive blood cultures, endocardial involve on echo, new murmur
minor: predispising condition, fever > 38C, septic emboli, immunologic phenom, one pos blood culture
homocystenuria and pyridoxine (check)
what causes the pain in a pulmonary embolism?
associated pulmonary infarctions
colonoscopy recommendations in ulerative colitis pts
start screen 8 years after the dx, then repeat every 1-2 years after

note: some say you can extend the 1st window if only the left colon is involved
treatment of herpes zoster
valacyclovir or acyclovir

postherpetic neuralgia can be treated with TCAs like amitriptyline
UA results
leukocyte esterase indicates pyuria

nitries indicate Enterobacteriaceae, like E. coli, the MCC of UTI
tick-borne paralysis
isolated rapid ascending paralysis (hours to days)
remove tick ASAP
recommened screening mammograms
every 2 years for women 50 and older
DeQuervain tenosynovitis
inflammation of abd pollicis and extensor pollicis when mothers hold newborns with their thumbs outstretched
blastomycosis s/s
pulmonary infection with fever, sweats, productive cough, and weight loss

if it becomes systemic it can lead to ulcerated skin lesions and bone lesions
disseminated histoplasmosis s/s and dx
palatal ulcers, hepatoslpenomegaly, and pancytopenia
primidone use and side effect
antiseizure that is converted to phenobarbital
2nd line for essential tremor
SE is acute intermittent porphyria with abd pain, neuro and psych abnls
causes of acalculous cholecystitis
extensive burns or severe trauma
prolonged TPN or fasting
mechanical ventilation
cause of mortality (& tx) in SAH
vasospasm that induces infarction
prevent with Ca channel blockers like nimodipine
treatment of uric acid renal stones
treat by alkalinization of the urine to pH > 6.5 with oral potassium bicarb or potassium citrate
causes of renal colic that do not show on xray
radiolucent stones like uric acid
Ca stones less than 3mm
obstuction via tumor or clot
potassium citrate - use
used to alkalize the urine as it is metabolized into bicarb by the liver
MCCs of epiglottitis
H. influ and strep pyogenes
treatment of Lyme disease
if pt is preg it is contra so use amoxicillin
dx of ARDS
acute onset resp distress in setting of predisposing condition

PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 200

bilateral infiltrates and a normal PCWP (<18)
electrolytes in OSA
hypercapnia causing resp acidosis

renal compensation increases bicarb and decreases chloride reabsorption
thalamic stroke
damage of the VPL causing contralateral pain syndrome
role of digoxin and furosemide in CHF
they reduce symptoms and hospitalizations, but do NOT improve survivial
psoriatic arthritis
usually involves the DIP of the hand, morning stiffness, dactylitis (sausage digit)
+ nail involvement
MCC of suspected brain abscess
aerobic and anaerobic strep as well as Bacteroides (also anaerobic)
staph is only responsible for 15%
electrolytes in Conn's
primary hyperaldosteronsism leads to increased Na, decreased K, increased bicarb causing metaboic alkalosis
risk of having bipolar disorder
general population: 1%
if pt has 1st degree relative, risk is 5-10%
if both parents are, 60%
ethylene glycol poisoning - electrolyte disturbance
calcium oxalate in the kidneys oxalate binds Ca, causing hypocalcemia

treat with fomepizole or ethanol to reduce further metabolism of ethylene glycol
indication for removal of pleual fluid
if the pH < 7.2 or glucose < 60, it is suggestive of empyema and needs to be drained via thoracostomy