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45 Cards in this Set

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The Spanish were the first European nation to colonize North America

Oldest European settlement in North America is St. Augustine, Florida

The Virginia Company

Charted by King James I. A joint-stock company that helped establish the first English colony in North America

Joint-Stock Company

A company that sells stock in itself and anyone who buys stock owns a portion of the company

Jamestown

First permanent English colony in North America. Established in Virginia in 1607.

Problems in Jamestown

1. Swampy location = Mosquitoes (diseases like yellow fever, malaria)


2. Swampy or brackish water (bad water) = Dysentery, dehydration.


3. Poor Leadership


4. Poor planning


5. Most of the people were gentleman farmers who were unaccustomed and unwilling to farm or do other manual labor.

John Smith

gave colony of Virginia the forceful leadership and got them on the right track to survive

John Rolfe

married Pocahontas. Developed a new form of tobacco, which became popular in Europe and gave the colony of Virginia financial prosperity

cash crop

A crop grown to sell and bring a profit

Headright System

Gave land to settlers who came to colonies. Received 50 acres of land for every ticket they bought

Indentured servant

A person who could not afford a ticket to the colonies and agreed to work for another person for 7-9 years in exchange for that person buying them a ticket

Powhatan

Native tribe found in Virginia area. Relationship was not good, always on edge and often times very violent. Lots of fighting.

House of Burgess

First representative government in the Colonies.


A House of Representatives. Created in Virginia in 1619 to make laws for the colony.

Bacon's Rebellion

Led by farmer Nathanial Bacon. Began in 1676. Fighting Natives on the frontier (outside the city/fort of Jamestown)




Highlighted two main ideas: 1. class differences between wealthy planters and poor farmers


2. Colonial resistance to royal control/authority

Slavery

Began in Virginia as an alternative labor source to Indentured servants, especially for the hard labor of growing crops, most notably tobacco.

New England Colonies

Founded MOSTLY for religious freedom and reasons

Puritans

Settled Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630

Pilgrims

Settled Plymouth colony in 1620 (second English Colony)

Dissidents

People who were forced to leave Plymouth colony because they violated rules or religious teachings

Roger Williams

Dissident who was forced to leave because he thought Indians should be treated fairly and religious tolerance. Founder of Rhode Island




Roger Williams = Rhode Island

Connecticut

Another colony created by Dissidents who were forced to leave Mass. Bay and Plymouth colony.

Mayflower Compact

First governmental document of Plymouth colony. First written framework for government in the colonies

Half-way Covenant

Sort of half-way membership for the children or grandchildren of church members. These young people had begun to focus less on religion. Not automatically damned to Hell for their lack of participation in church and religious events.

New England and Natives

Relationship between the two was not overly good. New Englanders believe that they HAD to convert the Natives to Christianity, force religious doctrine (no work, hunting on Sundays). Treated Indians as inferior beings, believed could take land from Natives not buy fairly.

King Phillip's (Metacom's) War

Fighting between Natives and New England colonists from 1675-1676. Natives led by Metacom (colonists called King Phillip). Lots of gruesome warfare and fighting. Colonists won

Salem Witch Trials

Began in Massachusetts in 1692 when a few young girls accused an elderly lady of being a witch. After a short time, some 20 men and women had been found guilty of witch craft and sentenced to death. Showed religious


extremeism and mass hysteria

Navigation Acts

Laws enacted by the British that restricted colonial trade to ONLY England. Many colonists
illegally traded and smuggled goods

Loss of Massachusetts Charter

1684. Punishment from King Charles II for the illegal trading of people in Mass. Lost corporate charter and became a royal colony

Royal Colony

Colony with no freedom or autonomy and under direct control of the King, usually through the


supervision of a royal governor or other representative of the crown.

Dominion of New England

Essentially all of New England was placed under control of one royal governor

New Netherlands

Founded by the Dutch in 1621. Capital was New Amsterdam. Most diverse of all the colonies

New York and New Jersey

New Netherlands was taken over by the British, who essentially stole it from the Dutch. Changed the name to New York and New Jersey.

Pennsylvania

Founded in 1682 by William Penn. Religious group there was the Quakers (Oatmeal guys)


Very religiously tolerant, great relations with the Natives.

Quebec

Founded by Samuel de Champlain in 1608. He was French. Founded city of Quebec, later renamed New France.

Why are the French in North America?

Not colonizing like the English


1. Trading with Natives (esp. fur)


2. convert natives to Catholicism


3. Keep an eye on British


4. Show military and economic strength (having colonies, mercantilism)

Southern Colonies

Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. Much more slavery here. Based on agriculture

Middle Colonies (Mid-Atlantic)

Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania.


Mixture of southern and northern colonies with some industry and some agriculture. Most diverse colonies, most tolerant

New England Colonies

Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire. Mostly manufacturing. More cities (more urban). Settlement mostly for religious reasons.

Mercantilism

17th century economic policy where nations seek to improve their wealth and power by obtaining colonies, resources, and favorable balance of trade.


Government should regulate trade (what is traded, price, etc)


Colonies were to provide raw materials for cheap costs to mother country and then buy finished goods

Triangular (Trans-Atlantic) trade

Trade between Europe, Africa, and the New World (Americas).


Europe --> Africa: finished goods


Africa --> Americas: Slaves


Americas --> Europe: Raw materials, crops, etc



Middle Passage

Route between Africa and the Americas in Triangular trade. Slaves went from Africa to the Americas. Conditions were horrible. 15-30% of slaves on ships died.

Slave culture

Largest group of immigrants came to America not on their own free will. By 1775 20% of colonial population was of Africa decent, 90% of these Africans lived in the Southern colonies.




Combination of lots of different people from different areas, tribes, languages, religions, etc. were all forced to lived together. Developed a unique culture called "Slave culture"

Ben Franklin

"Started from the bottom, now we here"




Shows social mobility and individualism

Great Awakening

Religious revival that took place in the Colonies from the 1730s-1750s. Ministers traveled from town to town preaching about God. Large increase in the amount of Church attendance.

Johnathan Edwards

preacher during Great Awakening. Gave "Sinners in the hands of an angry God" sermon.

George Whitfield

One of the founders of Methodism. Preacher in Great Awakening.