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23 Cards in this Set

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What is a Joint Stock Company?
Stock companies that allowed several investors to pool their weath in support of a colon that would, hopefully, yield a profit. Once they had obtained their charter, or official permit, a stock company accepted responsibility for maintaining the colony, in return for which they would be entitled to recieve back most of the profit that the colony might yield. In 1606, King James I of England granted the first charter to the Virginia Company. Sir Walter Raleigh was the first man to explore this land and he named Virginia after Elizabeth I, "the virgin queen". With the 3 ships, Susan Constant, Discovery and Godspeed, nearly 150 passengers and crew members made their Journey to the first colony in VA, Jamestown which was named in honor of King James I.
What crop finally made Virginia a successful colony?
Tabacco helped Virginia become a successful colony. John Rolfe, a Jamestown colonist, experimented by cross breeding tabacco from Brazil with a harsh strain of the weed that local Native Americans had grown for years. This resulted in high-quality tabacco where more than 1.5 million pounds of this was exported each year by 1620. Over time, the people needed field laborers in order to meet the huge demand for tabacco. This led to the introducing of the headright system which means that anyone who paid for their own or another's passage to Virginia recieved 50 acres of land.
What was the relationship with the Native Americans; specifically Powhatan?
The Powhatan people treated the English with kindness and taught the English their ways. Over time, this relationship dwindled and the English began to demand that the Powhatan people give tributes of corn and labor. The soldiers then began to set the Powhatan villages on fire and kidnapped hostages, including Chied Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas who married John Rolfe in 1614. This caused some peace but by 1622, the English had worn out the patience of Chied Opechancanough, Chief Powhatan's brother. This led to the Powhatan people attacking the English up and down the James River, killing more than 340 colonists. This caused the English to become nearly bankrupt until king James revoked the company's charter and made Virginia a royal colony- one under direct control of the king.
What was the House of Burgesses and what did it resemble?
The House of Buegesses was the first representative body in colonial America. The House first met in Jamestown on July 30, 1619, and included 2 citizens, or burgesses, from each of Virginia's eleven districts. The House claimed authority to raise taxes and make laws; however, the English governor had the right to veto any legislation the House lassed. Only white male landowners were allowed to vote. 130 years later, the House of Burgesses began supplying delegates to the Continental Congress- the revolutionary body that organized the break from Great Britain.
What happened in Bacon's Rebellion? Why was there a rebellion in the first place?
Nathaniel Bacon, a 29 year old planter, was upset because Governor Berkley refused to finance a war to benefit the colony's poor frontier settlers. Angered by Berkley's response, Bacon raised an army to fight the Native Americans on the Virginia frontier. Governor Berkley declared this army illegal and on Septermber of 1676, Bacon marched to Jamestown when he heard this news. He confronted the colonial leaders about the number of grievences, the lack of representation on the frontier's behalf, and them being taxed nd governed without consent. This march turned violent and rebels set fire to the town as Berkley and numerous planters fled by ship. Bacon died a month later after the victory and Berkley returned and subdued the leaderless rebels. The rebellion was caused in the first place because the frontier settlers didn't like that they weren't represented and Berkley didn't care about them because they were poor.
What led to an increase in slavery?
A decrease in indentured servants led to an increase in slavery. The large demand for tabacco led to the headright system. Many owners imported indentured servants from England. Indenured servants recieved food and shelter in exchange for agreeing to work for a limited term of servitude for four to seven years. Then, in 1819, the first group of African laborers arrived in Virginia. About 20 Africans were treated like indentured servants and over time, it took longer and longer for Africans to be freed, ending in Africans becoming slaves.
Why did the settlers leave Europe?
For God, Gold and Glory. They wanted religious freedom, the ability to have more money, and to escape the tax issues that the country was going through at the time.
What was King Philip's War?
The first war between the British and the Native Americans. Metacomb was the leader of the Natives at the time and Major Benjamin Church stepped up for the Puritans. This ended with the King of New England taking back the colony and making it his own.
Why were town meetings important in the country?
Town meetings were important because this was how the people would comunicate and this led to the people becoming closer due to the way that the British people were treating them.
What is a proprietary colony?
A colony in which one or more individuals, such as land owners, retained privalages that would be thought of today as rights of the states. A good example of this was King Charles the II of England giving WIlliam Penn rights that only he had since he was the founder of Pennsylvania.
Why did Roger Williams form Rhode Island?
founded Rhode Island in the form of a pure democracy, where the will of the majority should govern the state. It became a haven for Quakers, Jews and others fleeing from persecution. In 1639 Roger Williams joined the Baptist faith and founded the first Baptist church in America. However, within a few months he withdrew from this group and became a "Seeker".
What was the halfway covenant?
It was a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth.Full membership in the tax-supported Puritan church required an account of a conversion experience, and only persons in full membership could have their own children baptized. Second and third generations, and later immigrants, did not have the same conversion experiences. These individuals were thus not accepted as members despite leading otherwise upright Christian lives. In response, the Half-Way Covenant provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members.
Describe the Salem Witch Trials.
The Salem Witch Trials are what is known as a "witch hunt" today. The people would put the girl on trial and if convicted, then she would be drowned, stoned, or more. If she died, then that proved she was human. If she lived, then that would prove she was a witch and she would be put to death.
Why did Massachusetts eventually lose their charter?
They eventually lost this because they were more of a burden than a positive colony to the king. They couldnt survive on their own and they would run out of crops and money and they would suffer.
Describe the Middle Colonies.
the middle region of the Thirteen Colonies of the British Empire in Northern America. In 1776 during the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became independent of Britain as the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. The British captured much of the area in its war with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York.
Where did the Dutch settle?
New York
How did the Netherlands settlement become New York?
Known as the "dutch wedge" and it was taken over by the Duke of York in 1664. It became a proprietary colony and it later split into various types of areas.
Why did William Penn settle in Pennsylvania? What was his vision for the colony?
He was kicked out of his last settlement because he was preaching against the Catholics and said people should have religious freedom. His vision for the colony was to be a safe haven for anyone who had been religiously neglected.
What were the main differences in the French and English settlements?
The French believed in embracing the cultures while the English tried to change what they were witnessing to the culture they were used to.
Which country had a better relationship with the Native Amercans? Why?
The French because they got along with the Native Americans and didn't try and take away their land.
What is mercantilism?
Theory about self-suffenciey
Describe the Trans-Atlantic trade. What were the routes they took, what items did they trade?
They traveled through the Middle passage which was a three-step process to transfer African American slaves. First was the trip from Europe to the African Coast to trade goods for slaves. The next step was moving the slaves over to the Americas and the last step was bringing trade and profit back to England.
What was the significance of the Great Awakening?
It was a revitalization of religious piety that swept through the American colonies between the 1730's and the 1770's.