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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The New Freedom
- 1912
- Wilson’s progressive program to destroy monopolies, not regulate them
- Antitrust modification, tarriff revision, reform in banking and currency
- Wilson wanted to encourage competition w/ small business
- Against massive corporations that dominate the economy
Red Scare
- 1917 Russian Revolution started concern
- Threat grew in 1919 w/ creation of Comintern (a group to spread communism around world)
- 8 bombings set off idea of a conspiracy, fight against radicalism began
- Antiradical newspapers and politicians blamed every form of instability on comunism
- 1920 Attorney General Mitchell Palmer and Edgar J Hoover led a series of raids to crack down on radicalism (6,000 arrested, nothing found)
- Red Scare abated
- 1933 New Deal program started by FDR (National Recovery Administration)
- Started under National Industrial Recovery Act
- NRA set min wage and max weekly hours, abolished child labor
- “Blue Eagle” symbol was outside businesses that supported NRA policies
- A “voluntary” program (businesses that didn’t display Blue Eagle were boycotted
- Codes poorly and hastily written, decline in production, no enforcement
- 1941 program under FDR (Fair Employment Practices Committee)
- Firm w/ gov contracts can’t discriminate against Blacks
- Never enacted into law (until president Truman)
Challenge to Liberty
Herbert Hoover, “The Challenge to Liberty”
- 1934 book published by Herbert Hoover denouncing the New Deal
- He criticizes FDR’s policies and hopes for a new “American liberalism”
- Hoover defines liberty as “a thing of the spirit”
- “Liberalism is not the possession of any political party”
- Specifically targets New Deal policies such as TVA and public works
War Industries Board
- 1917 government agency during WWI that encouraged certain business practices
- WIB encouraged mass production to increase efficiency, quotas set, prices fixed
- Encouraged business to grant concessions to labor (wage increases to stop strikes)
- War production boomed, WIB was decommissioned in 1919
Neutrality Acts
- Acts were a response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that led to WWII
- Neutrality Acts (1935)- Legal safeguards to prevent US intervention
- Established arms embargo between victim and aggressor in military conflicts
- 1936 Neutrality Act renewed provisions
- 1937 act added provisions
- 1937 Neutrality Acts‡ “cash and carry” (nonmilitary goods could be bought only with cash and they had to be carried away on their own ships)
- December 1941 declaration of war rendered the acts irrelevant
Wilson's 14 Points
- In 1918, Wilson presented to Congress the principles for which they were fighting
- War aims had 14 points in 3 broad categories
o 8 specific recommendations for adjusting postwar boundaries, new nations
o 5 principles to govern international conflict (freedom of seas, free trade)
o A proposal for a League of Nations to implement these principles
- 14 points were also an answer to the Bolshevik Revolution
- Also a last minute (and unsuccessful) effort to persuade Russia to stay in the war
Social Gospel
- Protestant intellectual movement to apply Christian ethics to social problems
- Religious wing of the progressive movement (1880-1920)
- Focused on issues: poverty, racial tensions, slums, poor schools, danger of war)
- Focused on redemption of nation’s cities
- Never dominated urban reform movements
The Greer Incident
- “Neutrality patrols” very controversial, lend-lease, provoked Germans
- Greer dropped depth charges for German U-Boats, U-boats fire back
- FDR gives speech accusing Germany of firing upon US ships (misleads)
- Speech misled US people to garner support (comparable to Gulf of Tonken)
Ludlow Massacre
- 1917‡ Wartime strike of coalminers in Ludlow, Colorado
- Coalminers were evicted but moved into tents to strike, had 7 demands
- State militia was called to “protect the mines” (but actually to help strikebreakers)
- Militia and strikebreakers attacked the tents, 39 died (11 children)
2nd New Deal
- 1935, FDR launched new programs “Second New Deal” (pro-labor anti-business)
- Holding Company Act 1935‡ law to break up great utility holding companies
- Wagner Act- (like NIRA) guaranteed labor right to organize/bargain collectively
- Social Security Act- system of universal retirement pensions, unemployment insurance (framework for US welfare system)
- Sold to Americans as “workers’ insurance” (not as sweeping as today’s SS)
- FDR established highest, most progressive peacetime tax rates in history (less radical than opponents would like to claim b/c few people paid such high rates)
- FAILED- Court packing plan (FDR’s attempt to add 6 justices to Supreme Court)
Margaret Sanger
- American Birth Control Activist
- Founder of American Birth Control League (now planned parenthood)
- Socialist who blamed capitalism for work conditions
- Proponent of eugenics (race hygiene)
- Defender of free speech, arrested numerous times for speaking out about BC
Share Our Wealth
- Huey Long's 1934 economic plan for a progressive tax to be redistributed to families
- Free college education, veteran benefits, assistance for farmers, old-age penions
- Wealth distribution, “every man a king”
- Radical Second new deal
Japanese American Internment
- As a result of Pearl Harbor (1941), Japanese relocated
- Forced relocation and internment of over 110,000 Japanese Americans
- Japs relocated b/c they feared terrorism, espionage, sabatoge
- Relocated to war relocation camps, FDR authorized the internment
- Those that were up to 1/16 Japanese could be put into internment camps
Coxey's Army
- Unemployed men formed “industrial armies” as response to 1893 depression
- Jacob S. Coxey organized a petition for unemployment relief
- Coxey got 100 unemployed, marched to Washington on Easter 1894
- During the march to Washington, Coxey’s Army gathered over 500 supporters
- Nationwide attention
War Labor Board
- Agency created by Pres. Wilson to resolve disputes between labor and business
- Pressured business into granting concessions to labor (min wage, max workday, equal pay for women, recognition of unions to organize/bargain collectively)
- Membership to unions exploded by more than 1.5 million
- Unions organized mass strikes to win (Samuel Gompers and AFL)
- War provided labor with important, but temporary, gains
Plessy vs. Ferguson
- 1896 Landmark Supreme Court Decision
- Upheld constitutionality of segregation of accommodations “separate but equal”
- Upheld Lousiana’s railroad segregation law
- Decision legitimized segregation practices in South
- Reversed in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
- est. in 1890 in NY City
- NAWSAW was an American women’s rights organization
- Largest and most important suffrage organization until 1920 (19th amendment)
- Susan B. Anthony was large figure for 10 years (until 1900)
- 1900, name was changed to NAWSA (two suffrage orgs combined into NAWSA)
Trust Buster
- Teddy Roosevelt was the pioneer of trust busting
- Trusts were industrial monopolies (Steel for example)
- Teddy dissolved 44 trusts during his two terms
- Teddy is the pres most associated for busting trusts, but Taft busted more trusts (90 in one term)
Social Security
- Secretary of Labor, Francis Perkins lobbied for fed funded social insurance
- 1935, FDR gave support for Social Security Act (influenced by Townsend Act)
- Most important social welfare legislation in history (not universal coverage)
- Gave money to the presently destitute, AND set up pension system
- Also established unemployment insurance
- “Insurance” NOT “welfare”
Wagner Act
- Like NIRA, guaranteed labor right to organize/bargain collectively
- Gov says unions can exist (will recognize them), prevented unfair labor practices
- FDR becomes the darling of the working class and labor
- Represented crucial change in relationship between labor and government
- “Operation Overlord”= allied invasion of Normandy, France
- 1944 invasion of Normandy was the greatest military invasion in history
- 160,000 troops crossed English Channel on June 6, 1944
- France was liberated, greatest amphibious assault in history
War Labor Board
- Independent agency intended to influence US public opinion about WWI
- Propaganda campaign established by President Woodrow Wilson (aka CPI)
- CPI first represented only the facts, but resorted to other tactics
- TONS of pro-war literature distributed (posters, movies, etc.)
- (posters about Germans killing babies, portraying them as evil monsters)
- “The Kaiser: Beast of Berlin” popular movie came out
Eugene Debs Speech
- 1918
- Eugene V Debs gave an anti-war speech in Canton, OH
- Violated Espionage Act of 1917 (illegal express opposition to WWI)
- (This was during the Red Scare, a period of vehement antiradicalism)
- 10 years in prison and lost citizenship (pardoned by Harding in 1921)
Sub Treasury Plan
- Agriculture was horrible, farmers could be plunged into poverty at any time
- Prices were low, huge debt accumulated for farmers
- “sub-treasury system” called on the federal government to create warehouses in every county that grew over $500,000 of agricultural products per year
- Farmers could store their crops in warehouses, waiting for the best selling price
- Farmers could borrow up to 80% of the value of their crops, pay only 2% interest
- The result would be increased supply of currency and a rise in farm prices
Rosie the Riveter
- Cultural icon rep 6 million US women who entered the workforce in WWII
- Rosie the Riveter was a sketch by Norman Rockwell in the Saturday Evening Post
- Rosie worked hard to support the war effort, wearing overalls and “victory pins”
- Women took unusual jobs in industry to make up for the men who were in WWII
- Women were “laboring for victory” to help the war effor
- War provided women with lucrative jobs that were previously unavailable
- After WWII ended, women returned to their traditional employment
- Rosie and her slogan “We Can Do It!” were on posters and magazines
WJB Cross of Gold Speech
- 1896
- Speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan at Dem Convention
- Advocated bimetallism, attacked gold standard
- Wanted to encourage inflation to help farmers ease their debts
- “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold” (not only gold standard)
- Ended in Bryan’s nomination as Dem nominee (youngest ever)
- Journalism used to increase public awareness about social problems
- Progressive era journalism (Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle”)
- “Muckraking” was coined by Teddy Roosevelt
- Inauguration of cheap, mass circulation magazines were crucial to muckraking
- Ids Tarbell’s “History of Standard Oil Company” was the most successful
Four Freedoms
- 1941
- Speech given by FDR at state of the Union (Four Freedoms Speech)
- Freedom of speech and expression, of religion, from want, from fear
- “From want and from fear” went beyond 1st amendment and endorsed a right to econ security and internationalist view of foreign policy
- These were central tenants of US liberalism
Court Packing Plan
- FDR tried to add 6 new Supreme Court justices b/c court was “overloaded”
- Scheme lost him much support from left (and obviously the right)
- FDR proposed it b/c Court was knocking down his legislation (NIRA 4 example)
- Lasting damage to FDR, wanted too much power, a demagogue
- 1915, in Atlanta a new group of white southerners established new Klan
- Ku Klux Klan first est. during Civil War but re-emerged during 1920’s
- Membership expanded rapidly (Indiana had largest membership, Oregon, Cal)
- KKK portrayed themselves as patriots, defenders of morality
- Opposed foreigners, blacks, Catholics, and Jews
- Declined in 1925 after scandals and power struggles
Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
- Engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor revolutionized work
- “Principles of Scientific Management” made production into a science
- His theory increased efficiency by transforming the process of work
- Taylorism sped up production and routinized manufacturing
- Increased productivity didn’t translate into higher wages, labor declined
Triangle Factory Fire
- 1911
- Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City was largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York
- Caused the death of 146 garment workers
- The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards