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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who was President Johnson?
-Tenesee democrat selected to balance the ticket and "reunite country".
-viewed with suspicion by northerners
-Lacker Lincoln;s political abilities...not a pres.
What do people think Johnson "thinks" about the 10% plan?
People think that Johnson endorses the 10% plan because he is a suohterner, not becuase he is continuing Lincoln's plan.
Johnson Implements Lincoln's 10% plan...what else?
-secession illegal-"rebellion of individuals"
-"Reconstruction" was an executive function-NO CONGRESS
-Readmission only on three terms
-Pardons granted once swore loyalty oath(except high CSA officials)
-votes for blacks was a state decision
WHat were Johnson's three readmission terms?
1. States reatify 13th amendments(slavery illegal)
2. Repeal ordinance of secession
3. Disregard war debts?
GREAT DEAL OF OPPOSITION TO ALL THIS...Southern States sort of fulfill criteria
1)Mississippi refused to amend the thirteenth amendment
2)SC repealed secession, didn't nullify
3) Elected pardoned CSA officials to Congress, returned with more members than they had before secession(blacks create huge representative population)
First Black Codes
-institutes by many southern states
-single most egregious thing during reconstruction(turned North against the South)
-intermarriage-life sentence
-contract-lose whole years money-ill-bad treatment
-no firearms-even if deemed necassary those days
-List of Rules-took away ALL fair rights-didnt really end slavery-northerners angey; balme Johnson
Congres Reconvenes Dec. 1865-They have a Belief that...
-Congress, and not the President, should be responsible for "reconstruction"
-CSA=conquered territories seeking admission
-Lincoln/Johnson too lenient/South deserved to be punished
- Too much power coming back in reconstructed South in Congress
-South is taking advantage of former slaves
Congress REconvenes...seats for confederates?
-deny confederates seats until grasp reconstruction
Congress Reconvenes...Radical Republicans?
-control Congress
"They did this to us! All fo our sons...DEAD...make them suffer."
-SOuth unable to fully admit their mistake
Who were the two reps that had "much bitterness toward the south"?
Thaddeus Stevens=House
Charles Sumner=Senate
What did Sumner and Stevens and the Radical Republicans accomplish?
-They seized control of the Reconstruction-economic, societal, political, economic.
-they abolished state governments set up under Johnson's plan
-THey divided te South into Five military districts, each ruled by a general
- THey created new readmission terms.
What were the radical republican new readmission terms?
1) majority voters required to take Loyalty oath
2)New state constitutions must guarantee black vote
3) ratification 14/15 amendment=equal protection, black vote
4) former CSA officials denied vote/office
What were the 3 reconstruction amendments and what did they entail?
1) 13th amendment= slavery prohibited
2) 14th amendment=civil rights to ex-slaves
guaranteed "male" citizenship
punished former CSA officials/moneylenders
3) 15th amendment=sufrage for black men
(you can memorize this, you know it!)
1. Congress passes Freedmen's bureau, which helps refugees start new lives-meals, hospitals, etc.
2. Johnson vetoes-too much power to military courts
3.Congress passes Civil Rights Bill(states rights) to protect balcks in the South with the federal intervening, enforce in states.
4. Johnson vetoes-feds no authority to interfere with states.
4. Moderates think Johnson rascist, turn to radicals overnight. Congressional override and new freedmens' bureau.
5. Johnson veto
6. Congressional override; 14th amendment passed
7. Johnson begs and urges states to reject.
Congressional Elections-1866
1) Radical Republicans-victorious
2) won a 2/3 members-VETO PROOF CONGRESSSSS-johnson powerless. oh no.
Johnson impeachment: Tenure of office act
1867-COngress passes
-required president to get Senate approval before removing appointees once approved by Senate.
JOhnson Impeachement: Goal of Tenure of OFfice Act
1) keep stanton(Lincoln's seceratry of War)
2) Good for Johnson to violate the law, easier impeachment.
Johnson impeachment/trial
1)Johnson believes Tenure of office act is unconstitutional, fires stanton.
2) HOR voted 127 to 47-Impeach Andrew Johnson-verbal assault/tenure
3) Senate trial was like a huge show-1 vote short!!!
The Klu Klux Klan
-Southern response to "radical rule"
-resent new black status/success and corruption
-1866 Secret Society founded-"night rider"
goal: firghten "freedmen" out of voting
-1868-LA-200 blacks killed-mass grave
Force Acts of 1870/71
Federal Government pass harsh law to punish night riders-forced groups underground
The Black Codes designed to keep Freedmen from voting
-Poll Taxes
-Literacy Tests
-Grandfather Clause
-collectively became known as the "jim crow" laws
The pre-requisites of the INdustrial Revolution
NAtural REsoources: overabundance of arable land, raw materials, land, wealth, agriculture
Capitol: Money, investments, industries, invesTORS(foreign), influence
Policy: What the government does for industry(no couth in Congress) corporations, limited liability, "laissez faire", trusts, subsidies
Labor: People, Immigration, cities, migration, xenophobia
The Impact of the Industrial Revoltuion
Farms: cycle of poverty in agriculture. over-production, falling prices, debt, politics.
Cities: xenophobia, corruption, sanitation, overcrowding, crime, melting pot.
Government: big vity bosses, corruption(greedy, opputunity), national politics
Families: women, children, company towns, reforms, blacks
Labor Movement: changing nature of work, workplace unions.
Politics of the great Industry the Railroad: Federal subsidies
Grants of assistance to projects serving the public.(loans, tax breaks, land)
Politics of the great Industry of the railroad: Public Domain
-land controlled by government-10 miles-each side of track(the more land, the more building around, the more money for the railroad payment)
Politics of the great Indistry of the railroad: Regulation/Growth of cities
evolving role of government:
-protecting consumer interests
-equality in competetion
-fair prices
THe great Industry the railroad: Population movement
NAtive American impact-people settling west
Role of Women evolves
Identity of American Culture
Employment-enourages immigration-oppurtunity
The great industry the railroad: economics
-Industrial Giants(carnegie, rockefeller, morgan)
-Private companies-millionaires created
-Integrated market-Natinal market(oranges all year round), increased demand for goods.
The great industry the railroad: Technology
-One invention spurs another
-impacts on need for natural resources and the labor force
The great Industry of the railroad: SOciety
-Standards establsihed: railroad time(before 20 different time zones in one state alone)
-Cultural difference
- Transcontinental Railroad
Sacremento was "central pacific"
Omaha was "Union pacific"
met @ "Promontory Point" in Ogden, Utah.
From 1880-1890 there is a shift in the pattern of immigration form WASPS to not so wasps, after the wasps become wealthier and "superior".
oldcomers vs. newcomers
Why did Immigrants come to America?
Economic Hardship-Irish potato famine
Economic oppurtunity-abundant farmland, germans desire for land, send money home
REligious/Political Persecution-Jews/pogroms, germans/failed revolution
IMMIGRATION VS. EMIGRATION/ push vs.pull factors
Immigrants: Urban Growth
Too poor to move west. doodly doo.
Melting Pot
-Public education
-kids reject "traditional"culture
Colonies of Immigrants
-newspapers, groceries, support networks and similar culture
OVer crowding
tenemnt houses-6-15 story buildings
-multiple families
- fire hazards, few exits winding corriders, little natural light, little privacy
Immigration: Sanitation
Germs: communal toilets, little running water, poor ventilation=TB common
Dirt: large numbers of people in/out
Water: poor plumbing-no wells
HOrses: filth.transporation necessity/special police squad
Immigration: Crime
--high (un?)employment, gangs, poor conditions
--homicide rate ries 3x=prison pop 50% up
Immigration: Corruption
"boss rule:, city contracts, police, fire, garbage,
Immigration: Anti Immigration
xenophobia, many poems and essays written...facade that US was all welcoming
Immigration: Federal Legislation:
Oldcomers settle in, gain control
Foron Act
- illegal for employers to pay fares of passage from Europe in exchange for work(AHEM NIKE...and every other mass producing company)
Chinese Exclusion Act
barred persons from coming to the US if nto legible- "lunatics, idiots, criminals, and Chinese"
--evolved to include much Asians except Filipinos(US acuired philllipines as colony in 1898)
uuhh. coming soon. see becky.
To oldcomers....
-immigration not UNwelcome
-many arrive with money
-less government restriction
-founded churches/newspapers
To Newcomers...
-VERY poor immigrants
- many uneducated/illiterate
-unprepared for big cities
-restictions put by oldcomers
Oldcomers vs. Newcomers: Exploitation
-cheap labor
-not join labor unions-fear loss of job
-plan to stay only a short time/return home
-high costs/crime/abuse
-taken advantage of..."houston"
Xenophobia: Immigration REstriction League
-limit "undesirables"
-require literacy tests
-TARGET: Southern/Eastern Europeans(no public education)
Xenophobia: American Protective Assosiation
-All New England Founders
-Anglo-Saxon race must seperate..."superior"
-TARGET:catholics in political office
New Workplaces: directional shift in 1880.
before 1880:
small shop-8 owners
-local owners
-daily supervision
-personal relationships
-skilled artisans
After 1880...
hundred/thousands workers
owners=little daily contact
impersonal relationship
mass production...FEW skills
New workplaces: results in directional shift
-class of unskilled workers developed
-poorly paid with little security
-poor conditions, long hours
-little job satisfaction
Newworkplaces: wages
Cash wage-$ people were paid-declines(amount on your check)
Real Wage- $ buying power-slight increase(inflation)(prices go down as you can buy more with less)
New workplaces: example wages in 1900
$8.37 per week skilled
$5.50 per week unskilled
$2.00 wekk children
New workplaces: Hours
Government: 8 hours
Skilled: 10 hours
Unskilled: most seasonal AND 12-16 hours
New workplaces: conditions
serious injury
-many worker killed on the job
-little or no benefiets to survivors/dependents
New workplaces: women
-original factory worker
-seen as unsuitable work for men
New workplaces: children
-did ALL kinds of work-most dangerous/difficult
-7 million working full time in 1900
-city sweatshope\s-whole family labored
-men laid off-"mill daddy"-wife and kids cheaper
-horrible conditions-ripe for domestic abuse
New workplaces: Company Towns
-railroads open up factories outside city limits-land cheaper-built up community of workers
-scrip-payment to employees as as store credit-buy in THEIR store
-monitored home life
-begun successfully...advent of unions...tensions rise
Urban Politics
increasing population=increasing demands in cities
Urban Politics: Political MAchines
-city corruption
- provided services that Governemnt could not
-USed the governemnts money to make a good voting impression-free turkey on thanksgiving
-"ward healers"- fix neighborhood problems(to the best of their ability)
Urban Politics: Methods Paid
-Tip Offs-use inside infor for personal profit
-Kickbacks-money used from private companies in exchange for awardign city contracts
-Influence Peddling-lend name to open doors/favors
-Patronage-"spoils" system-concrete benefiets for supporters-hire people for nonexsistent jobs(4 at 1 pump)
Urban Politics: Boss Tweed
-bribery, graft, fraudulent elections
-City paid 13M dollars to construct courthouse
-actual cost $250,000 dollars(1 plasterer $138,000 for 2 days)
-THomas Nast-cartoonist lampooned in MY times
-Geroge Washington Plunkitt(crony) "I seen my oppurtunities ad I took em"
Era of cooperation-wanted closer than further/realtionship complex.intertwined/cycle
"laissez faire"?
B/G/I: Government aid to business
-postal service
-tarriff laws
-patent laws
G/B/I: Corporation
-business organization created by state charter-enables groups of individuals to act as a single entity/artificial person
-pool money, create corporation, Take controlling interest, have the vast majority of stock, then sell remaining share to public
-ability to rasie large sums of money (capital) and sell stocks and bonds in the company
B/G/I: corporation: limited liability
-owners are not personally liable for debts accrued b business beyond the extent of personal investment!!
-even if goes bankrupt, the owners can still keep their multi million dollar homes
B/G/I: Corporation: others
-Corporation exsists even if stockholders die/withdraw
-ability to dominate particular industry/accumulate wealth
**New era of glorification-military leaders shift to
-Giant Corporations...Great Influence
TARGET: gain control of markets
B/G/I: Methods developed/used: Trust
Stockholders of competing companies deposit their stock into a single board of trustees)each receive trust certificate) SO powerful the smaller businesses all die.
--a type of business combination
B/G/I: Methods developed/used: Pool
fix prices some;no competetion against each other
-competitors agree to fix prices/output=divide profits
B/G/I: Methods developed/used: Monopoly
NO COMPETITION-do whatever want @ will.
-Trust gains complete control of a single industry
EX: oil-cotton-sugar-tobacco
GOALS: Limit competetion/INcrease profitios.
B/G/I: Governemnt Response
1) Economic Policy="laissez faire" or "hands off"-survival of the fittest is trend of culture
-principles-"wealth of nations"(1776)-naive to monopolies, said government should not interfere
-THEORY: free competition=lower prices, better variety, etc.
-Simultaneously-protective tariffs/governemnent subsidies
B/G/I: other problems develop
-monopolies: restrained free trade
-on-going threats to public health(safety/machinery)
-small businesses unable to compete-hurts farmers, craftsmen, etc.
Andrew Carnegie: beginning
-made fortune in STEEL
-poor scottish immigrant, worked way up from bobbin boy, accumulated initial wealth in textiles.
Andrew Carnegie: Business Method
"vertical integration"-
*contol ALL steps in the process of steel production
TARGET: Control mines-factories-distibutors-ALL STEPS.
Impact-cut out the middleman keep all profits/low cost
Andrew Carnegie: carnegie steel Company
-controlled/produced 1/4 of the nation's steel output
-estimated income $25 MIL pre income tax
-Homestead workers wanted to unionize for higher wages, carnegie refused. HOMESTEAD STRIKE, PA. 24 killed over wage disputes.
-carnegie just kinda closed the mines.
-sold for 500 million to JP morgan in 1901; turned into US steel, nation's first billion dollar company.
Andrew Carnegie and others: Legacy
-gave 90% of wealth away-had too mcuh left at the end of his life
-public libraries/education/arts
"THe man who dies this rich, dies disgraced"
John D. Rockefeller-backround
-Made fortune in oil refining business
-born middle class/excellent organizer/initial wealth in grain traderoo
John d. Rockefeller-business method
"horizontal integration"-ONly control the KEY STEP! in the process of oil production...aka the OIL REFINING STEP!
TARGET: REfineries-one by one buys out competitors
John D. Rockefeller-business method's impact
-Railroads compete to carry freight of oil-A LOT.
Rebating- railroads give meny back to industry in return for business-drive small companies out
John D. Rockefeller: other...?
-Ruthless approach to business
-in 1877 controlled 97% of refineries
-created standard oil in 1882
-Media portrayed as cold hearted villain
*closed mines BEFORE able to unionize
*gave away billions to charity
-in 1911 the Supreme Court orders Standard oil to dissolve-a monopoly
JP Morgan(started rich, ended rich):Business Strategy
"Combinations"- buy controlling interest in small company and combine with others-create one UBER company
TARGET: consolidate rival companiesby placing his own officers on Rival Boards f directors-eventually gain control=mutual benefit.
JP Morgan...others?
-Interlocking Directorates were more powerful than state governments
-House of Morgan-banking tycoon-invent/profit/re-invest
Media Target-big nose/arrogant/powerful
What was JP morgan's Yacht's name?
Cosair, or pirate
Who wrote wealth of all nations?
Adam Smith, 1776
I was once a treehouse....
I lived in a cake....
...But I never saw the way...
...the orange slayed the rake!