• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Winthrop
led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 and was elected their governor in October 1629; "City upon a Hill" sermon
Massachusetts Bay Colony, Puritans
was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century, in New England; founded by the Massachusetts Bay Company; puritan settlement
early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts; Mayflower Compact, promised cooperation among the settlers "for the general good of the Colony unto which we promise all due submission and obedience"
Virginia colony
English Colony in North America; Anglican, first settled area in NA, founded in 1607
founded on May 14, 1607; first permanent English settlement in US; founded by the Virginia Company
John Rolfe
early English settler of North America; credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia; known as the husband of Pocahontas
indentured servants
individuals working under a contract that gave free passage to America in return for work for a fixed period, usually 7 years; was the primary labor system in Chesapeake colonies for most of 17th century.
“Seasoning” period
period of time in which a people become accustomed to a new area; intro to new diseases, water sources, temperatures, and land (swamp, arid etc)
Headright system
system of land distribution, adopted first in Virginia and later in Maryland, that granted colonists 50 acres for themselves and another 50 for each "head" (person) they brought with them to the colony.
Roger Williams
English theologian; notable proponent of religious toleration, separation of church and state, fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island; credited for originating the Baptist church established in America
Anne Hutchinson
unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands; held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men; was banished from her colony.
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
founder of the colony of Maryland in America; haven for catholics
William Penn, Quakers
influential English Quaker and founder of the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682; early champion of democracy and religious freedom and famous for his treaty with the Lenape Indians.
New Netherlands, Dutch
A Dutch colony stretching from New Amsterdam (NYC) to Fort Orange (Albany). Founded in 1624 by the Dutch West India Company, the colony was part of Dutch plans for further expansion in America. The English captured the colony in 1664, and renamed it New York
Iroquois confederacy
an alliance of the five most powerful Iroquois-speaking Indian tribes (the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, known as the Five Nations) formed before 1600 in what is now upstate New York. The Tuscaroras were added as the sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 18th century. Although members of the Iroquois Confederacy fought on both sides in the French and Indian War (1754-63), they generally favored the British.
Pequot War
conflict between English colonists in Mass. and the Pequots in 1636-37. Punishing the Pequots for the death of an English trader, Massachusetts militia attacked men, women, and children at the stockaded Mystic village, setting it ablaze and shooting escapees.
King Philip's War
(1675–76) Bloodiest conflict btwn American colonists and Indians in 17th-century New England. By 1660 colonial settlers had pushed into Indian territory in Mass., CT, and RI. To protect their lands, the Wampanoag chief King Philip (Metacom) organized a federation of tribes, which in 1675 destroyed several frontier settlements. In retaliation the colonial militia burned Indian villages and crops.
Bacon’s Rebellion
an armed uprising in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon, against Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley. Inititally the rebels attacked Indian settlements but later moved against Berkeley's political faction and burned Jamestown.After Bacon's death that year, the rebellion collapsed.
was founded in 1680 by English colonists and enslaved Africans from Barbados. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, rice and indigo had become the principal exports from the town's expanding wharves.
Half-way covenant
created by New England Puritans in 1662; provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Those who accepted the Covenant, and agreed to follow the creed and rules of the church, could become church members without claiming a spiritual experience. These half-members could not vote on any issues within the church, although all members could participate in the sacrament of the Supper.
Paxton Boys
group of backcountry Scots-Irish frontiersmen from the area around the central Pennsylvania, who formed a vigilante group in response to the Indian uprising known as Pontiac's Rebellion. The Paxton Boys felt that the government of colonial Pennsylvania was negligent in providing them with protection, and so decided to take matters into their own hands.
the idea that a colony should export more goods than it imports; and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices
Navigation Acts
17th-century Parliamentary statutes to control trade within the British empire so as to benefit Britain and promote its administration of the colonies
The Great Awakening
a widespread evangelical revival movement of the 1740s and 1750s, sparked by the tour of the English evangelical minister George Whitefield. The Awakening spread religious fervor but weakened the authority of established churches.
The Enlightenment
an intellectual movement of the 18th-century that celebrated human reason and scientific advances and expressed doubts about the truth claims of sacred texts
The Coercive Acts
a series of laws passed by Parliament in 1774 to punish Boston and Massachusetts for the destruction of tea during the "Boston Tea Party." Many colonists, who regarded these and similar laws as "intolerable," moved closer toward war.
the middle colonies
Connecticut ,New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware; most ethnically and religiously diverse of the colonies because of the influence of their English, Dutch, French and German origins.
jonathan edwards
colonial New England minister and missionary, was one of the greatest preachers and theologians in American history; played a major role in the ‘Great Awakening’
Benjamin Franklin
one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America
french and indian war
This was the last in a series of conflicts between Great Britain and France for dominance in North America. The French and Indian War (1754–1763), sometimes referred to as the Great War for Empire, and part of the global conflict called the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) in Europe, resulted in a British victory and the end of the French empire in North America.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Feb. 10, 1763; signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain. terminated the Seven Years War. France lost its possessions on the North American continent by ceding Canada and all its territories east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, and by ceding W Louisiana to its ally, Spain, in compensation for Florida, which Spain yielded to Great Britain.
virtual representation
A type of class action where nonparty members have a close relationship to the named parties and have similar interests such that a judgment is binding upon the nonparties; "No taxation without representation."
natural rights of man
John Locke, used by Jefferson in Dec of Ind; right to life, liberty, and pursuit of property (aka happiness)
proclamation act of 1763
decree issued by GB that prohibited the colonists from establishing or maintaining settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains.
stamp act
required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The Act was enacted in order to pay for the maintaining of the military presence protecting the colonies.
townshend duties
(1767) tax on common products imported into the American Colonies, such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea,
sons of liberty
secret organization of American Patriots; attacked symbols of British authority and power such as property of the gentry, Customs officers, East India Company tea, and loyalists
boston tea party
act of direct action protest by the American colonists against the British in which they destroyed many crates of tea belonging to the British East India Company on ships in Boston Harbor. The incident, which took place on December 16, 1773, has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution.
john adams
one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. John Adams was elected second President of the United States (1797–1801) after serving as America's first Vice President (1789–1797); played a leading role in persuading Congress to adopt the Declaration of Independence
samuel adams
was an American statesman, politician, writer and political philosopher, brewer, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States; instrumental in garnering the support of the colonies for rebellion against Great Britain, eventually resulting in the American Revolution, and was also one of the key architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped American political culture
First Continental Congress
convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met on September 5, 1774, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; response to the passage of the Coercive Acts; The Congress met briefly to consider options, organize an economic boycott of British trade, publish a list of rights and grievances, and petition King George for redress of those grievances.
Second Continental Congress
convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning in May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after shooting in the American Revolutionary War had begun. managed the colonial war effort, and moved slowly towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence; By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States.With the ratification of the Articles of Confederation in 1781
Articles of Confederation
governing constitution of the "United States of America." The Article's ratification (proposed in 1777) was completed in 1781, legally uniting the states by compact as a union with a confederation government. Under the Articles, the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically deputed to the central government.
Continental Army
army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies; the army was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Colonies in their struggle against the rule of Great Britain. was in conjunction with local militias and other troops that remained under control of the individual states. General George Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the army throughout the war.
George Washington
served as the first President of the United States of America (1789–1797) and led the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War
declaration of independence
statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, announcing that the thirteen American colonies were no longer a part of the British Empire. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson
thomas paine
English pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical, inventor, and intellectual. His principal contribution was the pamphlet Common Sense (1776), advocating colonial America's independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain
American Revolution
political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies of North America overthrew the governance of the British Empire and collectively became the nation of the United States of America.
battle of saratoga
decisive American victories resulting in the surrender of an entire British army of over 9,000 men invading New York from Canada during the American Revolutionary War.
battle of yorktown
decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington and French forces led by General Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by General Lord Cornwallis. It proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War, as the surrender of Cornwallis’s army (the second major surrender of the war) prompted the British government to eventually negotiate an end to the conflict.
treaty of paris (1783)
formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen United States of America,