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141 Cards in this Set

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United Nations

In NYC, international org for nations to use diplomacy (talking)rather than war
In NYC, international org for nations to use diplomacy (talking)rather than war
Cold War
Tensions between capitalist/democracy US andcommunist/totalitarian USSR
Tensions between capitalist/democracy US andcommunist/totalitarian USSR
Capitalism
Economic system with private ownership, competition
Democracy
Govt. system- people vote for leaders>
Communism
Economic system- govt ensures everyone makes same amount ofmoney, govt. owns everything/ all businesses
Joseph Stalin
Dictator of USSR after Lenin dies
Harry Truman
President of US after FDR dies, drops nuclear bombs on Japan, Truman Doctrine, Berlin Airlift
Soviet “satellite” nations
Eastern European countries- communist- under control of USSR
Iron Curtain
Boarder between democratic W. Europe and Communist E. Europe
Containment
US policy of keeping communism from spreading to other countries
Marshall Plan
Plan to give W. European billions to rebuild after WWII so theywould not turn communist
Truman Doctrine
US would give money and weapons to any country threatened bycommunism
NATO
Alliance of W. European and N. American democracies. Attack onone an attack on all- collective security
Berlin Blockade/Airlift
Stalin blockades W. Berlin (trying to make it communist)- USairlifts supplies into W. Berlin- Stalin calls of blockade
Central Intelligence Agency
US govt. agency that carries out covert missions and spies onother countries
Arms race
Race between US and USSR to have best weapons, first strikecapability
Hydrogen Bomb; ICBMs
Most powerful nuclear bomb; missile that could reachother continents
Mao Zedong
Communist leader of China who led communist takeover ofChina
Domino Theory
Idea that if one nation became communist, neighboringcountries would become communist
Korean War
N. Korea attempts takeover of S. Korea in attempt tounite Korea as one communist country. US joins in and war ends in stalemate
Totalitarianism
Govt. that rules all aspects of its citizens liveseight
Stalin
Communist leader of the USSR
Mussolini
Fascist leader of Italy
Adolf Hitler
Nazi/Fascist leader of Germany
Hirohito
Emperor of Japan
Hideki Tojo
Military dictator of Japan
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
Allies
USA, USSR, France, Great Britain
9. Appeasement
Giving into demands to get someone to stop doing something- G.B. appeased Hitler letting him take over Austria
Neutrality Acts
Passed in 1930’s to keep US out of European wars
11. Pearl Harbor
Attacked on December 7, 1941, wiped out US Navy in Pacific, caused US to enter war
12. Cash-and-carry program
US could sell weapons to Allies, but only if they paid cash andtransported them
Lend-lease plan
US could sell weapons to Allies (cash or loan) and transport them on US ships
War Production Board
Told companies what war goods to make in WWII
Holocaust/Final Solution
Systematic killing of 12 million Jews, handicapped, homosexuals, Gypsies, etc.
Island hopping
Strategy to avoid J’s islands and get close enough to Japan tobomb it.
Los Alamos
Where nuclear bomb was tested- New Mexico
Manhattan Project
Code name for nuclear bomb project
Japanese internment camps
Camps in western US where Japanese citizens were forced to live during WWII
Battle of Midway
Turning point in Pacific, US starts to beat Japan
Normandy Invasion (D-Day)
Allies invade France, open Western Front vs. Germany
Battle of Iwo Jima
Japan vs. US for battle of island close to Japan- US wanted it so it could bomb Japan
Battle of the Bulge
Last major battle of WWII- US vs. Germany- US wins, marches toward Berlin
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Japanese cities bombed by atomic bomb
Yalta & Potsdam Conferences
Meetings to decide how to deal w/ Germany & Europe after WWII
United Nations
In NYC- all nations of world meet to discuss problems rather than go to war
A. Philip Randolph
Civil rights leader in WWII- Double V Campaign (victory at home and at war)
F.D. Roosevelt
Dies in 1945- 4 terms- cause of the 22nd amendment
Rosie the Riviter
poster- women needed to work in factories for the war effort
Black Tuesday
Biggest stock market crash in US History: October 1929
President Hoover
Hoover believed people should get themselves out of the Depression on their own without govt. help
Hoovervilles
Tent cities by people that lost their houses during G.D.

Dust Bowl

Caused by bad farming techniques and overuse of land- crop failures in Midwest
New Deal
Roosevelt’s plan to get out of the Great Depression
The First Hundred Days
FDR’s 1st 100 days, Bank Holiday
Fireside chats
FDR’s weekly radio program to update American people on how govt. was helping with the G.D.
Bank Holiday
Closed banks for four days- unhealthy banks were closed, healthy banks were allowed to reopen. Restored confidence in banks
Federal Deposit Insurance Commission
Insured bank deposits in case of bank failure
Securities & Exchange Commission
Made rules for how the stock exchange (market) works so it would not crash again
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Jobs program, built dams in Tennessee and brought electricity to rural areas
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal job program- unskilled workers did conservation projects
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Paid farmers not to grow crops so that the supply would decrease and then the prices would increase
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
New Deal Agency to set prices, set fair wages and maximum weekly hours
Huey Long’s “Share the Wealth” plan
Presidential candidate who wanted to tax the wealthy and give their money to the poor.
Work Progress Admin (WPA)
Largest New Deal Agency, employed millions
Wagner Act
Guaranteed workers right to create a union, collectively bargain, strike
Social Security Act
Checks to disabled and elderly (over 65)
Court-Packing
FDR tried to raise # of Supreme Ct. justices from 9 to 13 so the court could not end his New Deal programs. People objected b/c it violated separation of powers.
Harding’s “Return to Normalcy”
Return to normal life and an isolationist foreign policy after WWI
Henry Ford
Creator of the assembly line

Sports

made popular by the radio

Charles Lindbergh
Flew solo across Atlantic Ocean
Harlem Renaissance
Flourishing of black culture in Harlem- jazz, arts, theatre, literature
Langston Hughes
Poet/author in Harlem Renaissance
Jazz and Louis Armstrong
Music invented during H.R.- famous Jazz musician
Flappers
Stereotypical woman of 1920’s- drank alcohol, danced, short “bobbed” hair, short skirts
Tin Pan Alley

Major music production company of the 1920's

The Lost Generation,
Authors who were critical of American consumer culture and life in the 1920s- Ernest Hemmingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald
Prohibition
Made alcohol illegal
Red Scare
Fear of communism during the 1920s and 1950s
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
Italian immigrants convicted of murder and executed during 1920’s- illustrates fear of immigrants and nativism.
Immigration Acts of 1921, 1924
Restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia- led by NATIVISTS

Nativists

Anti-Immigrants- "America is for "Real Americans""

Religious fundamentalism
Religion based on strict interpretations of a holy book (Bible, Koran, Torah)
The Scopes “Monkey” Trial
Teacher prosecuted for teaching evolution- found guiltyShowed Illustrated SCIENCE VS. RELIGION & rural vs. urban
On-margin buying
Borrowing money to buy stocks- major cause of stock market crash and Great Depression
Overproduction
Producing more products than needed- major cause of the Great Depression.
Imperialism
Taking over land that does not touch your country to get natural resources, navy bases, and markets to sell products
Foreign Policy
Idea that drives how the United States deals with other countries
“Big Stick” Diplomacy
TR’s foreign policy- countries in Latin America will do what US wants or face the “Big Stick” (the US Navy)
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
If any European country interferes in Latin America, they will have to fight the United States (Navy)- Police Powers
Panama Canal
Built by TR and US. TR encouraged Panama to break away from Columbia when Columbia refused to let US build it.
Open Door Policy in China
Policy enforced by US Navy that any country could do business in any part of China (No more “spheres of influence”)
Yellow Journalism
Exaggerating newspaper stories in order to increase sales- USS MAINE EXPLODING IN CUBA BLAMED ON SPANISH
Spanish-American War
War between US and Spain- took place in Cuba when after USS Maine exploded newspapers claimed Spain did it. US won and got- the Philippines, Guam, Cuba and Puerto Rico

Phillipines, Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico

US gets these countries by winning Spanish American War

Philippine-American War
Philippines fought the United States for freedom from the US
U.S. Neutrality
Foreign policy in years before WWI. (AKA Isolationist)
The Lusitania
British ship sunk by German U-boats. 129 Americans died. Outraged helped cause US to get into WWI
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
German u-boats sinking any non-German ship in the Atlantic Ocean, a cause of WWI.
Zimmerman Note
Telegram sent from Germany to Mexico claiming if Mex. Attacked US, Germany would help Mexico get back Texas, New Mexico, AZ and California- helped cause US to enter WWI.
Central vs. Allied Powers
Germany, Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire vs. US, Great Britain, Russia, France
Western vs. Eastern Fronts
Western- In France, Trenches, TanksEastern- In Russia, lots of Russian deaths
Total War
All aspects of life in a country going towards winning a war (women working, factories making war equipment, rationing, etc.)
Lenin’s Bolshevik Revolution
Communist revolution in Russia led by Lenin, Tsar Nicholas killed, Lenin takes over, pulls Russia out of WWI, changes Russia to USSR, US backs Nicholas in Russian civil war.
Ration stamps
Stamps that allowed citizens to buy a limited amount of goods so that resources could go toward winning the war.
Victory Gardens
Planted by US citizens in their yards so that food could go to soldiers
Eugene Debs
Union guy, spoke out against US in WWI, convicted under the Espionage and Sedition Act and sentenced to 10 years in prison for expressing his beliefs in a public speech
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Controversial law- made it illegal to speak out against war- limited freedom of speech.
Schenck v. US (1919)
Schenck criticized draft, prosecuted under Espionage and Sedition Act b/c his speech created a clear danger to the draft program in the US during a state of war.
Great Migration
African-Americans escaping the Jim Crow south and moving north for factory jobs during WWI.
Mobilization and the WIB
War Industries Board was in charge of mobilizing factories to make war goods (think tanks) rather than consumer goods (refrigerators)
Propaganda and the CPI
Committee on Public Information- created propaganda to promote the war.
Selective Service Act
Created the draft for all males over 18
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Wilson’s ideas for a lasting peace after WWI- no alliances, freedom of seas, end of imperialism, self determination of countries, League of Nations to prevent future wars
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty that ended WWI, ignored Wilson’s 14 points, punished Germany harshly with reparations and vastly reduced military- US SENATE NEVER SIGNS TREATY OF VERSAILLES- opposition led by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
League of Nations
Group of countries who met together to use diplomacy (discussions) to work out differences rather than go to war. Meant to prevent another world war. US NEVER JOINS LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
protective tariff
A tax on imports to protect American companies from cheaper foreign products
laissez faire
The government keeping out of business- no regulations or laws on how businesses operate
patent
A legal protection of an inventor’s invention or idea so no one can steal it
Thomas Edison
Inventor of the lightbulb, phonograph, etc.
Bessemer Process
A process to make steel lighter and cheaper- invented by Henry Bessemer
Time Zones
Created to coordinate train times across the US
Monopoly
Having complete control of one industry or product
John D. Rockefeller
Oil industry monopoly- (dig through rock to get to oil) (That oil ‘feller)
Horizontal integration
Having a monopoly of one part of an industry (owning all fast food restaurants)
Trust
Synonym for monopoly
Andrew Carnegie
Steel industry monopolist- In Pittsburgh
Social Darwinism
Idea that the wealthy were rich b/c they were naturally better and poor were poor b/c they were lazy and dumb
ICC
Interstate Commerce Commission, set up to regulate railroads, set prices for shipping, etc.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1st ever anti-monopoly laws- made trusts illegal- not enforced
Sweatshops
Factories that treated their workers badly
company town
Town where workers lived and bought everything they owned from company store, lived in company apartments
collective bargaining
Workers creating a union and bargaining with their employers for better pay, working conditions, etc.
Knights of Labor
Largest labor union- allowed skilled and unskilled workers (think of an unskilled knight)
Samuel Gompers

Started the American Federation of Labor

AFL
American Federation of Labor- skilled labor union led by Samuel Gompers
Haymarket Riot
Union riot in Chicago that turned violent- public opinion turned against labor unions
Homestead Strike
Strike at Carnegies Homestead factory in Pittsburgh- several people killed, Carnegie calls in armed guards, workers lost strike
Pullman Strike
Strike at Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago- turned violent, many workers died, President Cleveland sent in federal troops to end the strike, strikes spread across the country.

Wounded Knee

Last of the Indian Wars- Knee hurt too bad to keep fighting