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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Model friction or impedance

Grouped in slopes and aspects, viewsheds-valleys, hills, watersheds

Continuous -elevation, temperature

Discrete= population density

What are Surfaces

Features containing height values (Z) distributed throughout areas defined by sets of X, Y coordinates

Surface Creation

Sampling at critical locations, use interpolation to fill gaps.

Statistical - dot mapping, chorpleth, dasymetric, isarithmic

Sampling Statistical Surfaces

Isometric map=isolines, known Z values sampled at point locations

Isoplethics=Isolines, Z values recorded for polygonal areas, can create centroids

Selection of data- regular lattice or irregular lattice

Data Models for Statistical Surfaces

TIN- Vector data

DEM-discrete altitude matrix-point image method, each contain single elevation value

Raster Surface=each unit can contain only single absolute elevation value. Converts continuous data to discrete

Interpolation Methods

Calculate slopes, aspects, cross sections and predict elevations for objects, do not have data for.

Linear/Nonlinear - can involve assumption

Saddle point problem

Four characteristics of three dimensional surfaces

Steepness of slope




Steepness of slope

rise over run, change in elevation over horizontal distance


Surfaces exhibit slopes, oriented in particular direction


Classify statistical surfaces to provide measure of form. Cross sectional profile simplest method.


Line of sight, viewshed

Spatial Arrangements

Placement, ordering, concentration, connected-ness, or dispersion of objects within confined geographic area

Point Patterns

Most common technique

Simplest measure= divide # of points by total area

Patterns- uniform -pattern in area same as pattern in another area

Regular-separated by same distance

Random- scattered

Clustered= tight

=Quadrant Analysis

Uniform point patterns defined by relationships among uniform quadrants.

Chi-squared test-

Xsquared =SUM((O-E)Squared/E)



Chi value- low-pattern is uniform

Overlay Analysis

Graphic and Attribute analysis

Cartographic overlay

Types of Overlay Analysis

Point-in Polygon= results in point feature

Point carries polygon attributes in addition to own

Types cont'd

Line in Polygon results in line feature

Contains Line attributes + polygon attributes


Polygon-result is polygon

Carries attributes of both layers

Types of Overlay

Exclusionary-And, Or, XOr

Mathematcally- Assign weight to variables, use buffers, arithmetic calculations

Selective= Rule Based= If, then else

Overlay in Vector

CAD type= limited analytical power, output visual land requires manual interpretation

Topological Vector= Great analytical power, output both visual & GIS dataset, Sliver polygon problems

Venn Diagrams

And= Intersection

Or= Union

XOR= complement or exclude

Resembles graphic overlay method in GIS

Raster Overlay

Use Map Algebra, add values in cells