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15 Cards in this Set

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Barclay-Vesey Building

-One of the first NYC skyscrapers built under new 1916 zoning

-Stepbacks gave it unique “wedding cake” look, to allow for air and light to hit side-walk

fundamental in art deco design

Zoning and exclusion

-San Francisco 1885 banned public laundries, a not-so-subtle attempt to zone the Chinese immigrant population (invalidated 1886 Supreme Court)

-1909 Los Angeles experimented with city-wide regulation to keep heavy industry and commerce out of certain neighborhoods

City Beautiful movement Daniel Burnham

-Notion that the city itself could engender civic loyalty, thus guaranteeing a harmonious moral order; the city’s physical appearance would symbolize its moral purity. (Hall, pp. 46-47)

-Architect and planner for 1893 World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago; co-authored 1909 Plan of Chicago and 1901 McMillan Plan for Washington DC; City Beautiful advocate - wanted “order” and “beauty”

-Famous quote: “make no little plans…they have no magic to stir men's blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans”

1893 World’s Columbian Exhibition / Chicago World’s Fair / The “White City”

-Directed by Burnham, brought together great names like Olmsted, etc; “ushered in” City Beautiful movement and modern city planning

-Buildings were neoclassical and painted chalky white thereby dubbing Chicago “white city”

1901 McMillan Plan for Washington, DC

-Commissioned by Senator McMillan and execution of City Beautiful Movement through a revisit of L’Enfant original plan- collaboration among Burnham, Olmstead and others.

-A mall that was designed to symbolize power and grandeur ignoring the economic distress found behind it.

1909 Plan of Chicago

First modern comprehensive plan, by Burnham; most important City Beautiful plan and the most carried out; Lakeshore Drive is a legacy of this plan

New Delhi and Edwin Lutyens

-Symbolic of the power of the Raj (1858-1947) and unrelated to the organic life of the indigenous city next door

-Capital just moved to New Delhi in an elaborate social structure literally rendered in architecture

-Plan reflects strong, central authority and was designed by Lutyens and Baker

“The Albert Speer Plan” for Berlin

-City Beautiful inspiration- Hitler’s dystopian World Capital Germania would "only be comparable with ancient Egypt, Babylon or Rome. What is London, what is Paris by comparison!"

-Nazi statement on urban policy; monumental N-S artery to Triumphal Arch; grand spaces to show power of Nazi Germany;

-Dome was so big that if people’s hall was full, the combined breath would cause rainfall.

Burnham’s 1905 Plan of San Francisco

-A treatment of streets and parks that was rejected because of economic infeasibility but a lesson of beauty and order

-Civic center at set of radiating boulevards, interrupted grid system, park strip leads to Golden Gate park

Canberra, Australia

-Last City Beautiful and biggest Garden City; 1908 chosen as site for international design competition; Walter Burley Griffin (student of Wright) won

Streetcar Suburbs

Sam Bass Warner’s landmark book on Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870-1900 documents the rise of mass suburbanization in Boston.

Pacific Electric in Los Angeles

-Also known as the Red Car system. Was a privately owned mass transit system in Southern California consisting of electrically powered streetcars, light rail, and buses and was the largest electric railway system in the world in the 1920s.

-Organized around the city centers of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, it connected cities in Los Angeles County, Orange County, San Bernardino County and Riverside County.

Garden City movement

-Produce relatively economically independent cities with short commute times and the preservation of the countryside

-City would be concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards -once population reached limit, another would develop, creating several clusters

-Intended to be self-contained communities surrounded by “greenbelts”

-Combination of town and country in order to provide working class an alternative to working on farms or crowded cities

Garden Suburbs

-Built on the outskirts of large cities with no sections of industry, dependent on transportation to commute into the city (became garden cities)

Ebenezer Howard

-1850–1928) wrote Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898), resulted in the founding of the garden city movement

-Focused more on social/economic concepts of Garden City rather than physical design details