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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Iris, ciliary body, choroid
Keratic Precipitates secondary to uveitis; inflammation = increased vessel permeability = cells//exudate accumulate in anterior chamber -> inflammatory cells adhere to corneal endothelium and become visible keratic precipitates
Normal uve tract (iris, ciliary bdy, choroid
Posterior synechiae; adhesions between iris and lens
Anterior synechiae; adhesion between iris and cornea
Posterior synechiae (iris stuck to anterior surface of the lens)
Combo of intermediate an dposterior uveitis
Pt w pain, redness, photophobia, dereased vision with autoimmune dz
Uveitis; dx w slit lamp and indirect opthalmoscopy; can lead to vision loss if inadequately tx
mc secondary intraocular malignancy in adults
metastasis to uvea (iris, ciliary body, choroid)
mc primary intraocular malignancy
uveal melanoma no lymphatic within the eye; primary uveal melanoma tends to metastasize to liver
risks of uv light
uveal melanoma no lymphatic within the eye; primary uveal melanoma tends to metastasize to liver
mc spread for eye neoplasms
hematogenous; no lymphatic within the eye; primary uveal melanoma tends to metastasize to liver
uveal melanoma no lymphatic within the eye; primary uveal melanoma tends to metastasize to liver
rhetamotgenous retinal detachmnet; The detached retina appears blurred in the top of the photo – notice how the blood vessels are not in focus in the picture. This is because the retina is bowed forward and the picture is two dimensional. The tear is shaped like a “horseshoe” or a “V” due to pull from the vitreous.
exudative retinal detachment; fluid build up behind macula
Traction retinal detachment; fibrosis pulls retina off underlying tissue
AV nicking secondary to hypertensive retinopathy -> artery compresses vein due to high pressure; venous stasis distal to this crossing may cause occlusion of the retinal vein branches
copper wiring secondary to htn retinopathy; thickened vessel wall alters light reflex = orange metallic appeaance; note some AV nicking
cotton wool spots, flame hemorrhage, macular star from exudates in the outer plexiform retinal layer all secondary to hypertensive retinopathy
hypertensive retinopathy w flame hemorrhages as well as exudates
Neovascularization secondary to diabetic retinopathy; microcirculatory changes lead to lack of perfusion which can cause upregulation of VEGF and retinal angiogenesis
Why don't you give too much oxygen to newborns?
Increased risk for retinopathy of prematurity (nasal perfused/temporal avascular); by administering oxygen temporal blood vessels constrict causing ischemia of the distal tissue; ischemia upreg pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF which can result in angiogensis; signifiant contraction of the neovascular membrane = detachment of the retina
Sickle cell retinopathy
Low 02 tension in retinal periphery = sickling of rbc and vascular occlusion; can cause hemorrhages = traction/detachment or neovascularization = traction/retinal detachment
retinal artery occlusion
acute painless monocular loss of vision; pale retina w cherry red macula
Hollenhorst plaque (fragment of atherosclerotic plaque) present in an arteriole
why the cherry red spot?
CRAO with “cherry red spot” – this occurs due to ischemia, edema, and whitening of the retinal layers surrounding the fovea. In the fovea, the retina is thin and consists only of photoreceptors allowing the redness of the underlying choroid to remain visible (macula has its own blood supply = choroid artery)
retinal vein occlusion
dilated/tortuous vessels in addition to diffuse flame hemorrhages; could be secondary to a thrombus or comrpression of vein at sites of AV nicking (due to atheriosclerosiss)
Black spots and distortion in central vision
Macular degeneration
dry maular degeneration; black spot in vision
wet macular degeneration; black spot in center of vision
Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by bilateral degeneration of the retina as well as the pigmented epithelium of the choroid; poor NIGHT VISION
Immunocompromised + aids + vision problems
CMV retinitis
mc primary intraocular malignancy affecting children
retinoblastoma; neuronal cell of origin; malignancy arising from retina

60% sporadic
40% familial

two hit hypothesis
retinoblastoma histology; "flexner-wintersteiner rosettes" reflecting photoreceptor differentiation

areas of dystrophic calcifications also seen
Papilledema; optic nerve is hyperemic and swollen; can be secondary to nerve compression of elevation of CSF pressure surrounding the nerve; pressure elevation in the nerve = venous stasis at head = swelling

bilateral papilledema = elevated intracranial pressure
glaucomatous optic nerve damage; note increased risk ratio compared with the normal eye due to loss of ganglion cells and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (disc gets bigger)
optic neuritis
usually secondary MS