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15 Cards in this Set

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Joints

Joints

Joints

Abduction


movement away from the midline of the body



Adduction


movement toward the midline of the body



Circumduction


a movement at a synovial joint in which the distal end of the bone moves in a circle while the proximal and remains relatively stable



Dorsiflexion


bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum upper surface



Extension


an unbending movement around a joint and a limb (as the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint



Flexion


a bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint



Plantar flexion


bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole)

Muscles

Type of Muscles


Skeletal


Smooth


Cardiac


Striations


Yes


No


Yes


Voluntary


Yes


No


No


Location in the Body


Skeletal Muscles


Hollow organs and blood vessels


Heart


Function in the Body


Movement of body


Move substances within the body


Contract heart

Muscles

Muscle Contraction

Muscle Contraction

ARTERIES vs VEINS

ARTERIES vs VEINS vs CAPILLARIES

VARICOSE VEINS

BLOOD FLOW

CARDIAC OUTPUT

The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute



Changes in heart rate influence the amount of blood that is pumped to our tissues



Changes in cardiac output often signal disease of the heart



Factors such as exercise and heart damage both affect the movement of blood in your body and consequently can impact cardiac output

ABI (Ankle Brachial Index)

The ABI is a painless measurement that evaluates the circulation in your legs



The doctor listens to the flow of blood and measures the blood pressure in both the arms and the feet



Normally these two pressures should be about equal



A significantly lower pressure in the ankle usually indicates that there is a problem with blood flow in the legs



Peripheral artery disease


a form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery usually one leading to a leg or arm


Energy and Motion- Exercise Physiology Vocab

Aerobic


containing oxygen referring to an organism environment or cellular process that requires oxygen



Anabolic steroids


any of a group of usually synthetic hormones that are derivatives of testosterone are usually medically especially to promote tissue growth and are sometimes abused by athletes to increase the size and strength of their muscles and improve endurance



Anaerobic


lacking oxygen referring to an organism environment or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it



Blood doping


a technique for temporarily improving athletic performance and which oxygen carrying red blood cells previously withdrawn for an athlete or injected back just before an event



Cellular respiration


the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel



Creatine phosphate


a compound of creatine and phosphoric acid that is fun especially invertebrates muscle or it is an energy source for muscle contraction



Erythropoietin


A hormonal substance that is formed especially the kidney and stimulates red blood cell formation


Exercise and ATP

For your muscles in fact for every cell in your body the source of energy that keeps everything going is called ATP adenosine triphosphate is the biochemical way to store and use energy



The body has excess of two different types of energy systems anaerobic and aerobic



Anaerobic a uses a substance called creatine phosphate to produce adenosine triphosphate ATP is located in your muscles and is the body's main energy source allowing us to move and function





The body's long-term energy source is aerobic in nature meaning the presence of oxygen is necessary this Energy System relies on the chemical breakdown of muscle glycogen blood glucose plasma free fatty acids and stored intramuscular fats to produce ATPMany activities involve a mix of both aerobic and anaerobic Energy SystemsThe more intense an activity and the closer it is to your maximum work output the greater the amount of energy that is derived from anaerobic sources as opposed to aerobic energy systems used with submaximal activities


Many activities involve a mix of both aerobic and anaerobic Energy Systems



Many activities involve a mix of both aerobic and anaerobic Energy SystemsThe more intense an activity and the closer it is to your maximum work output the greater the amount of energy that is derived from anaerobic sources as opposed to aerobic energy systems used with submaximal activities


The more intense an activity and the closer it is to your maximum work output the greater the amount of energy that is derived from anaerobic sources as opposed to aerobic energy systems used with submaximal activities