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80 Cards in this Set

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How did Andrew Jackson and his administration react to Texas becoming an independent republic in 1836?

They formally recognized Texas as a sovereign republic.

Due to their poverty, where did most Irish immigrants settle in the United States?
the Northeast
What did the Female Labor Reform Association campaign for?
shorter working hours
What caused friction to develop between the Mexican government and Anglo-American colonists in Texas?

Many Anglo-American settlers refused to convert to Catholicism.

After the Mexican-American War, the Young America movement shifted its focus to which of the following?
economic growth and industrialization
In the most extreme form of Manifest Destiny, what land would the United States ultimately occupy?
the land that is occupied today by the United States and Canada
What caused the Mexican-American War to last much longer than expected?

The Mexicans stubbornly refused to make peace despite military defeats.

Why did freight businesses not immediately shift to the railroads?
Canal boats were cheaper.
What brought most German immigrants to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s?
They wanted to escape tough economic times.
Which of the following demonstrates that economics was a major motivation for immigration?

the peaks in immigration that correspond to times of economic prosperity

Which of the following resulted from the new working class in the 1830s and 1840s?
an upsurge of labor militancy
In the early 1820s, Mexican officials encouraged settlers from the United States to settle in Texas with offers of which of the following?
cheap, fertile land
What was different about the American working class of the 1830s as compared to the American working class of the 1840s?

In the 1830s, most male workers were artisans and few worked in factories, but by the 1840s, the proportion of male factory workers increased.

What was the platform of Sam Houston, the first president of Texas?
He was for annexation immediately after Texas declared independence.
Which of the following was opposed to President Tyler's plan for the annexation of Texas?
Northern antislavery Whigs
During the Mexican-American War, what major issue came up for debate in Congress?

to prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico

Which of the following forms of transportation had the greatest impact on the American economy during the 1840s and 1850s?
the steamboat
Which of the following inventions laid the basis for the ready-to-wear clothing industry?
the sewing machine
In 1860, what was both the main source of livelihood for individuals and the biggest contributor to the gross national product?
Where did most of the immigrants to the United States come from in the 1840s and 1850s?
In 1856, which antislavery senator was almost beaten to death on the floor of the U.S. Senate by Representative Preston Brooks?
Charles Sumner
Harriet Beecher Stowe published her abolitionist novel ______ in 1852, and it was enormously successful.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
How did Abraham Lincoln argue about slavery in his debates with Stephen Douglas during the 1858 Senate race?

He favored restricting slavery to the states where the Constitution protected it.

What was true of most Northerners during the 1840s?
They disliked slavery, but detested abolitionism.
What made the Compromise of 1850 so difficult to pass?
President Taylor opposed the compromise, and congressmen kept granting key concessions to rival parties.
What were the different stands Democrats and Whigs took on annexation and slavery in new territories?
Democrats endorsed expansion and a division of free and slave territories, while Whigs opposed annexation to avoid the slavery debate.
What made Northerners so opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854?

It permitted slavery in an area where it had previously been prohibited.

How did the Republican Party manage to gain so much support in the 1850s?
It wanted to prohibit slavery in the territories.
What was true about the sectional quarrel between North and South during the 1840s and 1850s?

It was increasingly seen in cultural and intellectual terms.

What ultimately led to the Republican success in the election of 1860?
Republicans were able to win decisively in the North.
In what area did the Wilmot Proviso propose to ban slavery?
in territory acquired from Mexico
What was the difference between Northern and Southern evangelicalism in the mid-1800s?

Northern evangelicalism focused on self-discipline and social reform; Southern evangelicalism focused on personal piety.

For the Northern Democrats, who would determine whether a territory would have slavery, per the principle of squatter sovereignty, or popular sovereignty as it was later called?
settlersWho was the "great pacificator"
who established the Compromise of 1850?
Henry Clay
Which part of the Compromise of 1850 was considered an outrageous piece of legislation?
enactment of the new Fugitive Slave Law
In 1854, Stephen Douglas proposed a bill that would set up territorial governments in Kansas and Nebraska on the basis of what?
popular sovereignty
What did Ostend Manifesto of 1854 accuse the Pierce administration of doing?
wanting to create a "Caribbean slave empire" by annexing Cuba
What was the main reason that many native-born Americans disliked Irish and German immigrants?
because they were mostly Roman Catholic
What action took place after proslavery adherents raided Lawrence, the free-state capital of Kansas, in 1856?

John Brown and his followers killed five proslavery settlers in cold blood.

The tension between ________ became virtually "irreconcilable" in the years between the elections of 1856 and 1860.
Northerners and Southerners
What caused seven states to secede from the Union before any shots had been fired?
the election of President Lincoln
Who surrendered to the Union Army at Appomattox Court House in April of 1865?
General Robert E. Lee
What did the Sanitary Commission promote?

cleanliness, nutrition, and medical care in Northern army camps

Which best describes the South's goal in seceding from the Union?
to re-create the Union as it had been before the Republican Party
In the beginning, the Civil War was a ________.
struggle to preserve the Union
To secure the necessary troops for the war, both the North and the South ________.
resorted to a draft
During the war, the Confederate economy ________.
suffered from severe inflation
Why did Northern sentiment to free the slaves increase as the war dragged on?
People recognized that emancipation could be used as a weapon against the South's economic and social systems.
What caused the New York Riot of July 1863?

a combination of racial prejudice and class conflict

Which statement best characterizes Sherman's march through Georgia?
Sherman destroyed almost anything of military or economic value in his path.
As a result of the war, how did the American society change?
The United States became a more highly organized country in which large corporations grew.
Cooperationists believed that the slave states ________.

should act as a unit rather than secede one at a time

Why did Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina join the Confederacy only after the attack at Fort Sumter?
When given a choice of whether to fight for or against states that had already seceded, those states sided with the Confederacy.
The Crittenden compromise would have ________.
extended the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific
The first shots of the Civil War were fired at ________.
Fort Sumter
In 1861, Lincoln declared martial law and suspended the _________ in the area between Philadelphia and Washington.
writ of Habeas Corpus
The Emancipation Proclamation freed ________.
only slaves in the Confederate-controlled areas
During the Civil War, about ________ African Americans served in the Union Army.
Copperheads ________.
were militant antiwar activists
The victory at ________ gave the Union control of the Mississippi River.
Andrew Johnson believed that Reconstruction should _______.

guarantee that the Southern ruling class would not regain power

The term “Reconstruction” refers to the _______.
period immediately following the Civil War
The Redeemers _______.
believed in the principles of laissez-faire and white supremacy
What was the main implication behind Black Codes?

Southerners wanted African Americans to return to positions of servitude.

What was the main belief of the Radical Republicans?
that the rights of freedmen should be insured by the federal government
What was a result of the congressional elections of 1866?
The results served as a referendum on the Fourteenth Amendment.
Why did the House of Representatives impeach President Johnson?

because he challenged the Tenure of Office Act by removing the Secretary of War

How did former slaves' ideas about their freedom conflict with the ideas of their Northern allies?

Freed blacks wanted to continue with a family-based communal work system, but Northerners wanted them to become individual wage earners.

What was the public's general impression of Ulysses S. Grant?

He could not resolve the problems of the time

What was the main reason for the Ku Klux Klan's success in the South after 1868?

popular support from whites of all social classes

What did Republican leaders agree to do in order to ensure the election of Rutherford Hayes?

end federal support for Southern radical regimes

Why did Andrew Johnson resist the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment?

Johnson strongly supported states' rights and felt that these laws did not allow states to manage their own affairs.

President Lincoln's Reconstruction plans were committed to _______.

rapidly readmitting the Southern states to the Union

What was the legacy of Reconstruction for most African Americans?

poverty and discrimination

Which of the following required 50 percent of Southern voters to take an oath of loyalty to the Union before the Southern states could regain their status as states?

Wade-Davis Bill

President Andrew Johnson eventually was _______.

opposed by Radical Republicans

Which of the following constitutional amendments attempted to ensure the civil rights of formerslaves?


The First Reconstruction Act of 1867 _______.

placed the South under military rule

During Reconstruction, most African Americans _______.

continued to work on rural farms

What amendment to the Constitution states that no person could be denied the right to vote because of race, color or previous condition of servitude?